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Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses

Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
Institute on Ecosystems, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Elke Genersch and Sebastian Gisder
Viruses 2015, 7(6), 3285-3309;
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 4 May 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honeybee Viruses)
Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: honey bee; honey bee virus; Apis mellifera; Lake Sinai virus honey bee; honey bee virus; Apis mellifera; Lake Sinai virus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Daughenbaugh, K.F.; Martin, M.; Brutscher, L.M.; Cavigli, I.; Garcia, E.; Lavin, M.; Flenniken, M.L. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses. Viruses 2015, 7, 3285-3309.

AMA Style

Daughenbaugh KF, Martin M, Brutscher LM, Cavigli I, Garcia E, Lavin M, Flenniken ML. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses. Viruses. 2015; 7(6):3285-3309.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Daughenbaugh, Katie F., Madison Martin, Laura M. Brutscher, Ian Cavigli, Emma Garcia, Matt Lavin, and Michelle L. Flenniken. 2015. "Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses" Viruses 7, no. 6: 3285-3309.

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