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The Cryptophlebia Leucotreta Granulovirus—10 Years of Commercial Field Use

Citrus Research International, PO Box 20285, Humewood, Port Elizabeth 6013, South Africa
Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa
Citrus Research International, PO Box 28, Nelspruit 1200, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: John Burand and Madoka Nakai
Viruses 2015, 7(3), 1284-1312;
Received: 1 December 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Viruses and Their Use for Microbial Pest Control)
In the last 15 years, extensive work on the Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV) has been conducted in South Africa, initially in the laboratory, but subsequently also in the field. This culminated in the registration of the first CrleGV-based biopesticide in 2004 (hence, the 10 years of commercial use in the field) and the second one three years later. Since 2000, more than 50 field trials have been conducted with CrleGV against the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta, on citrus in South Africa. In a representative sample of 13 field trials reported over this period, efficacy (measured by reduction in larval infestation of fruit) ranged between 30% and 92%. Efficacy was shown to persist at a level of 70% for up to 17 weeks after application of CrleGV. This only occurred where the virus was applied in blocks rather than to single trees. The addition of molasses substantially and sometimes significantly enhanced efficacy. It was also established that CrleGV should not be applied at less than ~2 × 1013 OBs per ha in order to avoid compromised efficacy. As CrleGV-based products were shown to be at least as effective as chemical alternatives, persistent and compatible with natural enemies, their use is recommended within an integrated program for control of T. leucotreta on citrus and other crops. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus; Thaumatotibia leucotreta; citrus; South Africa Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus; Thaumatotibia leucotreta; citrus; South Africa
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Moore, S.D.; Kirkman, W.; Richards, G.I.; Stephen, P.R. The Cryptophlebia Leucotreta Granulovirus—10 Years of Commercial Field Use. Viruses 2015, 7, 1284-1312.

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