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Open AccessReview

From Crescent to Mature Virion: Vaccinia Virus Assembly and Maturation

by Liang Liu 1,2,†, Tamara Cooper 1,2,†, Paul M. Howley 1,2,3 and John D. Hayball 1,2,4,*
Experimental Therapeutics Laboratory, Hanson Institute and Sansom Institute, Adelaide, 5000, SA, Australia
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, 5000, SA, Australia
Sementis, Ltd., Melbourne, 3000, Vic, Australia
School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005, SA, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2014, 6(10), 3787-3808;
Received: 2 September 2014 / Revised: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 2 October 2014 / Published: 7 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Maturation)
Vaccinia virus (VACV) has achieved unprecedented success as a live viral vaccine for smallpox which mitigated eradication of the disease. Vaccinia virus has a complex virion morphology and recent advances have been made to answer some of the key outstanding questions, in particular, the origin and biogenesis of the virion membrane, the transformation from immature virion (IV) to mature virus (MV), and the role of several novel genes, which were previously uncharacterized, but have now been shown to be essential for VACV virion formation. This new knowledge will undoubtedly contribute to the rational design of safe, immunogenic vaccine candidates, or effective antivirals in the future. This review endeavors to provide an update on our current knowledge of the VACV maturation processes with a specific focus on the initiation of VACV replication through to the formation of mature virions. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccinia virus; virus assembly; membrane biogenesis; virion formation vaccinia virus; virus assembly; membrane biogenesis; virion formation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, L.; Cooper, T.; Howley, P.M.; Hayball, J.D. From Crescent to Mature Virion: Vaccinia Virus Assembly and Maturation. Viruses 2014, 6, 3787-3808.

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