Next Article in Journal
Influenza Vaccines: A Moving Interdisciplinary Field
Next Article in Special Issue
Structure, Function and Dynamics in Adenovirus Maturation
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Bacteriophage Infection in Combination with Tobramycin on the Emergence of Resistance in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mutation of the Highly Conserved Ser-40 of the HIV-1 p6 Gag Protein to Phe Causes the Formation of a Hydrophobic Patch, Enhances Membrane Association, and Polyubiquitination of Gag
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2014, 6(10), 3787-3808;

From Crescent to Mature Virion: Vaccinia Virus Assembly and Maturation

Experimental Therapeutics Laboratory, Hanson Institute and Sansom Institute, Adelaide, 5000, SA, Australia
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, 5000, SA, Australia
Sementis, Ltd., Melbourne, 3000, Vic, Australia
School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005, SA, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2014 / Revised: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 2 October 2014 / Published: 7 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Maturation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [560 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]   |  


Vaccinia virus (VACV) has achieved unprecedented success as a live viral vaccine for smallpox which mitigated eradication of the disease. Vaccinia virus has a complex virion morphology and recent advances have been made to answer some of the key outstanding questions, in particular, the origin and biogenesis of the virion membrane, the transformation from immature virion (IV) to mature virus (MV), and the role of several novel genes, which were previously uncharacterized, but have now been shown to be essential for VACV virion formation. This new knowledge will undoubtedly contribute to the rational design of safe, immunogenic vaccine candidates, or effective antivirals in the future. This review endeavors to provide an update on our current knowledge of the VACV maturation processes with a specific focus on the initiation of VACV replication through to the formation of mature virions. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccinia virus; virus assembly; membrane biogenesis; virion formation vaccinia virus; virus assembly; membrane biogenesis; virion formation

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, L.; Cooper, T.; Howley, P.M.; Hayball, J.D. From Crescent to Mature Virion: Vaccinia Virus Assembly and Maturation. Viruses 2014, 6, 3787-3808.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top