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Identification of Cellular Proteins that Interact with Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early Protein 1 by Protein Array Assay
Department of Microbiology/RCMI Program, Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ponce, PR 00716, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2013; in revised form: 10 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 31 December 2013
Abstract: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene expression during infection is characterized as a sequential process including immediate-early (IE), early (E), and late (L)-stage gene expression. The most abundantly expressed gene at the IE stage of infection is the major IE (MIE) gene that produces IE1 and IE2. IE1 has been the focus of study because it is an important protein, not only for viral gene expression but also for viral replication. It is believed that IE1 plays important roles in viral gene regulation by interacting with cellular proteins. In the current study, we performed protein array assays and identified 83 cellular proteins that interact with IE1. Among them, seven are RNA-binding proteins that are important in RNA processing; more than half are nuclear proteins that are involved in gene regulations. Tumorigenesis-related proteins are also found to interact with IE1, implying that the role of IE1 in tumorigenesis might need to be reevaluated. Unexpectedly, cytoplasmic proteins, such as Golgi autoantigen and GGA1 (both related to the Golgi trafficking protein), are also found to be associated with IE1. We also employed a coimmunoprecipitation assay to test the interactions of IE1 and some of the proteins identified in the protein array assays and confirmed that the results from the protein array assays are reliable. Many of the proteins identified by the protein array assay have not been previously reported. Therefore, the functions of the IE1-protein interactions need to be further explored in the future.
Keywords: human cytomegalovirus (HCMV); major immediate-early (MIE); IE1; protein-protein interaction; protein array
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Martínez, F.P.; Tang, Q. Identification of Cellular Proteins that Interact with Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early Protein 1 by Protein Array Assay. Viruses 2014, 6, 89-105.
Martínez FP, Tang Q. Identification of Cellular Proteins that Interact with Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early Protein 1 by Protein Array Assay. Viruses. 2014; 6(1):89-105.
Martínez, Francisco P.; Tang, Qiyi. 2014. "Identification of Cellular Proteins that Interact with Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early Protein 1 by Protein Array Assay." Viruses 6, no. 1: 89-105.