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Viruses 2013, 5(12), 3142-3170; doi:10.3390/v5123142
Review

The Role of Innate Immunity in Conditioning Mosquito Susceptibility to West Nile Virus

,
 and
*
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2013 / Revised: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 13 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus)
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Abstract

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) represent an emerging threat to human and livestock health globally. In particular, those transmitted by mosquitoes present the greatest challenges to disease control efforts. An understanding of the molecular basis for mosquito innate immunity to arbovirus infection is therefore critical to investigations regarding arbovirus evolution, virus-vector ecology, and mosquito vector competence. In this review, we discuss the current state of understanding regarding mosquito innate immunity to West Nile virus. We draw from the literature with respect to other virus-vector pairings to attempt to draw inferences to gaps in our knowledge about West Nile virus and relevant vectors.
Keywords: West Nile virus; innate immunity; RNAi; Toll; Imd; Jak/STAT; autophagy; apoptosis; arbovirus; mosquito West Nile virus; innate immunity; RNAi; Toll; Imd; Jak/STAT; autophagy; apoptosis; arbovirus; mosquito
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Prasad, A.N.; Brackney, D.E.; Ebel, G.D. The Role of Innate Immunity in Conditioning Mosquito Susceptibility to West Nile Virus. Viruses 2013, 5, 3142-3170.

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