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Viruses 2011, 3(6), 794-810;

Molecular Aspects of HTLV-1 Entry: Functional Domains of the HTLV-1 Surface Subunit (SU) and Their Relationships to the Entry Receptors

Basic Science Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., NCI-Frederick, Maryland, MD 21702, USA
INSERM, U1016, Institut Cochin, 22 rue Mechain, 75014, Paris, France
CNRS, UMR8104, 75014, Paris, France
Université Paris Descartes, 75006, Paris, France
Cancer and Inflammation Program, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, MD 21702, USA
Service d’Hématologie Adulte, Hôpital Necker, 75743, Paris CEDEX 15, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 April 2011 / Revised: 20 May 2011 / Accepted: 23 May 2011 / Published: 15 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in HTLV Research)
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The initial step in retroviral infection involves specific interactions between viral envelope proteins (Env) and specific receptors on the surface of target cells. For many years, little was known about the entry receptors for HTLV-1. During this time, however, functional domains of the HTLV-1 Env were identified by analyzing the effects of neutralizing antibodies and specific mutations in Env on HTLV-1 infectivity. More recent studies have revealed that HTLV-1 infectivity involves interactions with three different molecules: heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), the VEGF-165 receptor Neuropilin 1 (NRP-1) and glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1). Here, we revisit previously published data on the functional domains of Env in regard to the recent knowledge acquired about this multi-receptor complex. We also discuss the similarities and differences between HTLV-1 and other deltaretroviruses in regards to receptor usage.
Keywords: retrovirus; viral entry; Env; proteoglycans; neuropilin; GLUT retrovirus; viral entry; Env; proteoglycans; neuropilin; GLUT

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Jones, K.S.; Lambert, S.; Bouttier, M.; Bénit, L.; Ruscetti, F.W.; Hermine, O.; Pique, C. Molecular Aspects of HTLV-1 Entry: Functional Domains of the HTLV-1 Surface Subunit (SU) and Their Relationships to the Entry Receptors. Viruses 2011, 3, 794-810.

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