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Viruses 2011, 3(6), 677-713;

Gammaretroviral Vectors: Biology, Technology and Application

Department of Experimental Hematology, Hannover Medical School, OE6960-HBZ, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, D-30625 Hannover, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 March 2011 / Revised: 3 May 2011 / Accepted: 9 May 2011 / Published: 3 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retroviral Vectors)
PDF [835 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]


Retroviruses are evolutionary optimized gene carriers that have naturally adapted to their hosts to efficiently deliver their nucleic acids into the target cell chromatin, thereby overcoming natural cellular barriers. Here we will review—starting with a deeper look into retroviral biology—how Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV), a simple gammaretrovirus, can be converted into an efficient vehicle of genetic therapeutics. Furthermore, we will describe how more rational vector backbones can be designed and how these so-called self-inactivating vectors can be pseudotyped and produced. Finally, we will provide an overview on existing clinical trials and how biosafety can be improved.
Keywords: Murine Leukemia Virus; gammaretroviral; split packaging design; SIN vector Murine Leukemia Virus; gammaretroviral; split packaging design; SIN vector
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Maetzig, T.; Galla, M.; Baum, C.; Schambach, A. Gammaretroviral Vectors: Biology, Technology and Application. Viruses 2011, 3, 677-713.

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