Next Article in Journal
The Molecular Biology of Frog Virus 3 and other Iridoviruses Infecting Cold-Blooded Vertebrates
Previous Article in Journal
The Hepatitis C Virus Glycan Shield and Evasion of the Humoral Immune Response
Open AccessReview

Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

1
Center for Virus Research, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
2
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Viruses 2011, 3(10), 1933-1958; https://doi.org/10.3390/v3101933
Received: 7 September 2011 / Revised: 1 October 2011 / Accepted: 10 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.
Keywords: virus evolution; prophage; evolution of immunity; restriction modification; addiction modules; toxin antitoxin; apoptosis; CRISPR; RNAi; interferon; adaptive immunity; T-cell receptor; MHC; ERV; HERV; LTR virus evolution; prophage; evolution of immunity; restriction modification; addiction modules; toxin antitoxin; apoptosis; CRISPR; RNAi; interferon; adaptive immunity; T-cell receptor; MHC; ERV; HERV; LTR
MDPI and ACS Style

Villarreal, L.P. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems. Viruses 2011, 3, 1933-1958.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop