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Review

Calicivirus Infection in Cats

1
Clinical Laboratory, Department of Clinical Diagnostics and Services, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
2
MRC—University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK
3
Clinic of Small Animal Medicine, Centre for Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, 80539 Munich, Germany
4
Department of Biomolecular Health Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Institute of Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
6
Bristol Veterinary School, University of Bristol, Bristol BS40 5DU, UK
7
Linnaeus Veterinary Limited, Shirley, Solihull B90 4BN, UK
8
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health (BVF), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7036, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
9
Scanelis Laboratory, 31770 Colomiers, France
10
Department of Small Animal Diseases with Clinic, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences—SGGW, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
11
Fundació Hospital Clínic Veterinari, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
12
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Università degli Studi di Teramo, 64100 Teramo, Italy
13
Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie, Università di Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy
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Veterinary Diagnostic Services, School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK
15
Veterinary Virology and Animal Viral Diseases, Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals & Health Research Centre, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Liège University, B-4000 Liège, Belgium
16
Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Chester High Road, Neston CH64 7TE, UK
17
Institute of Virology, Department for Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1210 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Retired from Institute of Virology, Department for Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1210 Vienna, Austria.
Academic Editor: Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14050937
Received: 30 March 2022 / Revised: 24 April 2022 / Accepted: 25 April 2022 / Published: 29 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feline Viruses and Viral Diseases 2.0)
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common pathogen in domestic cats that is highly contagious, resistant to many disinfectants and demonstrates a high genetic variability. FCV infection can lead to serious or even fatal diseases. In this review, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of experts in feline medicine from 11 European countries, presents the current knowledge of FCV infection and fills gaps with expert opinions. FCV infections are particularly problematic in multicat environments. FCV-infected cats often show painful erosions in the mouth and mild upper respiratory disease and, particularly in kittens, even fatal pneumonia. However, infection can be associated with chronic gingivostomatitis. Rarely, highly virulent FCV variants can induce severe systemic disease with epizootic spread and high mortality. FCV can best be detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR. However, a negative result does not rule out FCV infection and healthy cats can test positive. All cats should be vaccinated against FCV (core vaccine); however, vaccination protects cats from disease but not from infection. Considering the high variability of FCV, changing to different vaccine strain(s) may be of benefit if disease occurs in fully vaccinated cats. Infection-induced immunity is not life-long and does not protect against all strains; therefore, vaccination of cats that have recovered from caliciviral disease is recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: FCV; feline; multicat environment; genetic variability; virulent systemic; diagnosis; vaccination; vaccine strains; tenacity; treatment FCV; feline; multicat environment; genetic variability; virulent systemic; diagnosis; vaccination; vaccine strains; tenacity; treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Hosie, M.J.; Hartmann, K.; Egberink, H.; Truyen, U.; Tasker, S.; Belák, S.; Boucraut-Baralon, C.; Frymus, T.; Lloret, A.; Marsilio, F.; Pennisi, M.G.; Addie, D.D.; Lutz, H.; Thiry, E.; Radford, A.D.; Möstl, K. Calicivirus Infection in Cats. Viruses 2022, 14, 937. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14050937

AMA Style

Hofmann-Lehmann R, Hosie MJ, Hartmann K, Egberink H, Truyen U, Tasker S, Belák S, Boucraut-Baralon C, Frymus T, Lloret A, Marsilio F, Pennisi MG, Addie DD, Lutz H, Thiry E, Radford AD, Möstl K. Calicivirus Infection in Cats. Viruses. 2022; 14(5):937. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14050937

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina, Margaret J. Hosie, Katrin Hartmann, Herman Egberink, Uwe Truyen, Séverine Tasker, Sándor Belák, Corine Boucraut-Baralon, Tadeusz Frymus, Albert Lloret, Fulvio Marsilio, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Diane D. Addie, Hans Lutz, Etienne Thiry, Alan D. Radford, and Karin Möstl. 2022. "Calicivirus Infection in Cats" Viruses 14, no. 5: 937. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14050937

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