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The Effect of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles (nZVI) on Bacteriophages

Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Molecular Genetics of Bacteria, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
Phage Consultants, Partyzantów 10/18, 80-254 Gdańsk, Poland
Department of Non-Food Products Quality and Packaging Development, Institute of Quality Science, Poznań University of Economics and Business, Al. Niepodległości 10, 61-875 Poznań, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Terje Dokland
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 867;
Received: 17 March 2022 / Revised: 19 April 2022 / Accepted: 21 April 2022 / Published: 22 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Viruses)
Bacteriophages are viruses that attack and usually kill bacteria. Their appearance in the industrial facilities using bacteria to produce active compounds (e.g., drugs, food, cosmetics, etc.) causes considerable financial losses. Instances of bacteriophage resistance towards disinfectants and decontamination procedures (such as thermal inactivation and photocatalysis) have been reported. There is a pressing need to explore new ways of phage inactivation that are environmentally neutral, inexpensive, and more efficient. Here, we study the effect of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) on four different bacteriophages (T4, T7, MS2, M13). The reduction of plaque-forming units (PFU) per mL varies from greater than 7log to around 0.5log depending on bacteriophages (M13 and T7, respectively). A comparison of the importance of oxidation of nZVI versus the release of Fe2+/Fe3+ ions is shown. The mechanism of action is proposed in connection to redox reactions, adsorption of virions on nZVI, and the effect of released iron ions. The nZVI constitutes a critical addition to available antiphagents (i.e., anti-bacteriophage agents). View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteriophage inactivation; disinfection; antiviral; iron-based nanoparticles; nZVI bacteriophage inactivation; disinfection; antiviral; iron-based nanoparticles; nZVI
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MDPI and ACS Style

Raza, S.; Folga, M.; Łoś, M.; Foltynowicz, Z.; Paczesny, J. The Effect of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles (nZVI) on Bacteriophages. Viruses 2022, 14, 867.

AMA Style

Raza S, Folga M, Łoś M, Foltynowicz Z, Paczesny J. The Effect of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles (nZVI) on Bacteriophages. Viruses. 2022; 14(5):867.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Raza, Sada, Michał Folga, Marcin Łoś, Zenon Foltynowicz, and Jan Paczesny. 2022. "The Effect of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles (nZVI) on Bacteriophages" Viruses 14, no. 5: 867.

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