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Case Report

Clearance of Persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA Detection in a NFκB-Deficient Patient in Association with the Ingestion of Human Breast Milk: A Case Report

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Laboratory of Pediatric Immunology, Center for Investigation in Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-887, Brazil
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Laboratory of Emerging Viruses, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-862, Brazil
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World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
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Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz-SP), Ribeirão Preto 14049-900, Brazil
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Department of Public Health Emergency, Preparedness and Disaster, PAHO/WHO, Brasilia 70312-970, Brazil
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-887, Brazil
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One Health Laboratory, Feevale University, Novo Hamburgo 93510-235, Brazil
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Tropical Medicine Institute, Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 5403-907, Brazil
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Department of Infectious and Parasitic Disease, Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05403-000, Brazil
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Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK
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MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, J-IDEA, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
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Hematology and Transfusion Medicine Center, University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-878, Brazil
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Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-887, Brazil
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Laboratory of Investigation in Dermatology and Immunodeficiencies, Department of Dermatology, Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05403-000, Brazil
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Institute for Human Infection and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
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Biodiversity Research Centre, Federal University of Roraima, Boa Vista 72000-000, Brazil
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Experimental Medicine Research Cluster (EMRC), University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-862, Brazil
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Hub of Global Health (HGH), University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-862, Brazil
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Carla Varanda and Patrick Materatski
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051042
Received: 11 April 2022 / Revised: 5 May 2022 / Accepted: 6 May 2022 / Published: 13 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of Viruses to Biotechnology 2022)
Currently, there are no evidence-based treatment options for long COVID-19, and it is known that SARS-CoV-2 can persist in part of the infected patients, especially those with immunosuppression. Since there is a robust secretion of SARS-CoV-2-specific highly-neutralizing IgA antibodies in breast milk, and because this immunoglobulin plays an essential role against respiratory virus infection in mucosa cells, being, in addition, more potent in neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 than IgG, here we report the clinical course of an NFκB-deficient patient chronically infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant, who, after a non-full effective treatment with plasma infusion, received breast milk from a vaccinated mother by oral route as treatment for COVID-19. After such treatment, the symptoms improved, and the patient was systematically tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Thus, we hypothesize that IgA and IgG secreted antibodies present in breast milk could be useful to treat persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunodeficient patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection; immunosuppression; NFκB-deficiency; breast milk; IgA persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection; immunosuppression; NFκB-deficiency; breast milk; IgA
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Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Sabino, J.S.; Amorim, M.R.; de Souza, W.M.; Marega, L.F.; Mofatto, L.S.; Toledo-Teixeira, D.A.; Forato, J.; Stabeli, R.G.; Costa, M.L.; Spilki, F.R.; Sabino, E.C.; Faria, N.R.; Benites, B.D.; Addas-Carvalho, M.; Stucchi, R.S.B.; Vasconcelos, D.M.; Weaver, S.C.; Granja, F.; Proenca-Modena, J.L.; Vilela, M.M.d.S. Clearance of Persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA Detection in a NFκB-Deficient Patient in Association with the Ingestion of Human Breast Milk: A Case Report. Viruses 2022, 14, 1042. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051042

AMA Style

Sabino JS, Amorim MR, de Souza WM, Marega LF, Mofatto LS, Toledo-Teixeira DA, Forato J, Stabeli RG, Costa ML, Spilki FR, Sabino EC, Faria NR, Benites BD, Addas-Carvalho M, Stucchi RSB, Vasconcelos DM, Weaver SC, Granja F, Proenca-Modena JL, Vilela MMdS. Clearance of Persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA Detection in a NFκB-Deficient Patient in Association with the Ingestion of Human Breast Milk: A Case Report. Viruses. 2022; 14(5):1042. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051042

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sabino, Janine S., Mariene R. Amorim, William M. de Souza, Lia F. Marega, Luciana S. Mofatto, Daniel A. Toledo-Teixeira, Julia Forato, Rodrigo G. Stabeli, Maria Laura Costa, Fernando R. Spilki, Ester C. Sabino, Nuno R. Faria, Bruno D. Benites, Marcelo Addas-Carvalho, Raquel S. B. Stucchi, Dewton M. Vasconcelos, Scott C. Weaver, Fabiana Granja, José Luiz Proenca-Modena, and Maria Marluce dos S. Vilela. 2022. "Clearance of Persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA Detection in a NFκB-Deficient Patient in Association with the Ingestion of Human Breast Milk: A Case Report" Viruses 14, no. 5: 1042. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051042

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