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Experimental Infection of Horses with Influenza D Virus

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ayato Takada
Viruses 2022, 14(4), 661;
Received: 1 February 2022 / Revised: 19 March 2022 / Accepted: 20 March 2022 / Published: 23 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-A Influenza 2.0)
Antibodies to influenza D virus (IDV) have been detected in horses, but no evidence of disease in the field has been reported. To determine whether IDV is infectious, immunogenic, and pathogenic in horses, four 2-year-old horses seronegative for both influenza A (H3N8) and D viruses were intranasally inoculated with 6.25 × 107 TCID50/animal of D/bovine/California/0363/2019 (D/CA2019) virus, using a portable equine nebulizer system. Horses were observed daily for clinical signs including rectal temperature, nasal discharge, coughing, lung sounds, tachycardia, and tachypnea. No horses exhibited clinical signs of disease. Nasopharyngeal swabs collected from 1–8 days post-infection demonstrated virus shedding by qRT-PCR. The horses showed evidence of seroconversion as early as 13 days post-infection (dpi) and the geometric mean of the antibody titers (GMT) of all four horses ranged from 16.82–160 as demonstrated by the microneutralization assay. Further, deep RNA sequencing of the virus isolated in embryonated chicken eggs revealed no adaptive mutations indicating that IDV can replicate in horses, suggesting the possibility of interspecies transmission of IDV with bovine reservoir into equids in nature. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza D; horses; pathogenic; type D; seroconversion; bovine IDV influenza D; horses; pathogenic; type D; seroconversion; bovine IDV
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sreenivasan, C.C.; Uprety, T.; Reedy, S.E.; Temeeyasen, G.; Hause, B.M.; Wang, D.; Li, F.; Chambers, T.M. Experimental Infection of Horses with Influenza D Virus. Viruses 2022, 14, 661.

AMA Style

Sreenivasan CC, Uprety T, Reedy SE, Temeeyasen G, Hause BM, Wang D, Li F, Chambers TM. Experimental Infection of Horses with Influenza D Virus. Viruses. 2022; 14(4):661.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sreenivasan, Chithra C., Tirth Uprety, Stephanie E. Reedy, Gun Temeeyasen, Ben M. Hause, Dan Wang, Feng Li, and Thomas M. Chambers. 2022. "Experimental Infection of Horses with Influenza D Virus" Viruses 14, no. 4: 661.

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