Next Article in Journal
The Reservoir of Persistent Human Papillomavirus Infection; Strategies for Elimination Using Anti-Viral Therapies
Next Article in Special Issue
PhageLeads: Rapid Assessment of Phage Therapeutic Suitability Using an Ensemble Machine Learning Approach
Previous Article in Journal
Detection of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Clade 2.3.4.4b in Great Skuas: A Species of Conservation Concern in Great Britain
Previous Article in Special Issue
Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Autographiviridae Phage and Its Combined Effect with Tigecycline in Controlling Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-Associated Skin and Soft Tissue Infections
Article

Three Novel Bacteriophages, J5a, F16Ba, and z1a, Specific for Bacillus anthracis, Define a New Clade of Historical Wbeta Phage Relatives

1
Biological Threats Identification and Countermeasure Center, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
2
Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mikael Skurnik
Viruses 2022, 14(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020213
Received: 28 December 2021 / Revised: 15 January 2022 / Accepted: 18 January 2022 / Published: 21 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bacteriophage Biology)
Bacillus anthracis is a potent biowarfare agent, able to be highly lethal. The bacteria dwell in the soil of certain regions, as natural flora. Bacteriophages or their lytic enzymes, endolysins, may be an alternative for antibiotics and other antibacterials to fight this pathogen in infections and to minimize environmental contamination with anthrax endospores. Upon screening environmental samples from various regions in Poland, we isolated three new siphophages, J5a, F16Ba, and z1a, specific for B. anthracis. They represent new species related to historical anthrax phages Gamma, Cherry, and Fah, and to phage Wbeta of Wbetavirus genus. We show that the new phages and their closest relatives, phages Tavor_SA, Negev_SA, and Carmel_SA, form a separate clade of the Wbetavirus genus, designated as J5a clade. The most distinctive feature of J5a clade phages is their cell lysis module. While in the historical phages it encodes a canonical endolysin and a class III holin, in J5a clade phages it encodes an endolysin with a signal peptide and two putative holins. We present the basic characteristic of the isolated phages. Their comparative genomic analysis indicates that they encode two receptor-binding proteins, of which one may bind a sugar moiety of B. anthracis cell surface. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus anthracis; bacteriophages; complete genomic sequence; siphovirus; Wbetavirus; endolysin; receptor-binding protein; arbitrium system; phage tail Bacillus anthracis; bacteriophages; complete genomic sequence; siphovirus; Wbetavirus; endolysin; receptor-binding protein; arbitrium system; phage tail
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nakonieczna, A.; Rutyna, P.; Fedorowicz, M.; Kwiatek, M.; Mizak, L.; Łobocka, M. Three Novel Bacteriophages, J5a, F16Ba, and z1a, Specific for Bacillus anthracis, Define a New Clade of Historical Wbeta Phage Relatives. Viruses 2022, 14, 213. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020213

AMA Style

Nakonieczna A, Rutyna P, Fedorowicz M, Kwiatek M, Mizak L, Łobocka M. Three Novel Bacteriophages, J5a, F16Ba, and z1a, Specific for Bacillus anthracis, Define a New Clade of Historical Wbeta Phage Relatives. Viruses. 2022; 14(2):213. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020213

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nakonieczna, Aleksandra, Paweł Rutyna, Magdalena Fedorowicz, Magdalena Kwiatek, Lidia Mizak, and Małgorzata Łobocka. 2022. "Three Novel Bacteriophages, J5a, F16Ba, and z1a, Specific for Bacillus anthracis, Define a New Clade of Historical Wbeta Phage Relatives" Viruses 14, no. 2: 213. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14020213

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop