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SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence Structure of the Russian Population during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, 127994 Moscow, Russia
Saint Petersburg Pasteur Institute, 197101 St. Petersburg, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in Moscow, 129626 Moscow, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Kaliningrad Region, 236040 Kaliningrad, Russia
Irkutsk Research Anti-Plague Institute, 664047 Irkutsk, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in St. Petersburg, 191025 St. Petersburg, Russia
Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute “Microbe”, 410005 Saratov, Russia
Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology of the Vladimir Region, 600005 Vladimir, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Chelyabinsk Region, 454091 Chelyabinsk, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, 660049 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Primorsky Krai, 690950 Vladivostok, Russia
Nizhny Novgorod I. N. Blokhina Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Leningrad Region, 192029 St. Petersburg, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Stavropol Territory, 355008 Stavropol, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Sverdlovsk Region, 620078 Yekaterinburg, Russia
G. N. Gabrichevsky Moscow Research Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology, 125212 Moscow, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Amur Region, 675002 Blagoveshchensk, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Tula Region, 300045 Tula, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Murmansk Region, 183038 Murmansk, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Moscow Region, 141014 Mytishchi, Moscow Region, Russia
Rostov-on-Don Research Anti-Plague Institute, 344000 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration for the Astrakhan Region, 414057 Astrakhan, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Belgorod Region, 308023 Belgorod, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Krasnodar Territory, 350000 Krasnodar, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Republic of Tatarstan, 420111 Kazan, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Republic of Crimea, 295034 Simferopol, Russia
Rospotrebnadzor Administration in the Novosibirsk Region, 630132 Novosibirsk, Russia
Tyumen Research Institute of Regional Infectious Pathology, 625026 Tyumen, Russia
Khabarovsk Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, 680000 Khabarovsk, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Larisa Rudenko and Irina Isakova-Sivak
Viruses 2021, 13(8), 1648;
Received: 29 June 2021 / Revised: 11 August 2021 / Accepted: 11 August 2021 / Published: 19 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Respiratory Viruses Research in Russia)
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which came to Russia in March 2020, is accompanied by morbidity level changes and can be tracked using serological monitoring of a representative population sample from Federal Districts (FDs) and individual regions. In a longitudinal cohort study conducted in 26 model regions of Russia, distributed across all FDs, we investigated the distribution and cumulative proportions of individuals with antibodies (Abs) to the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen (Ag), in the period from June to December 2020, using a three-phase monitoring process. In addition, during the formation of the cohort of volunteers, the number of seropositive convalescents, persons who had contact with patients or COVID-19 convalescents, and the prevalence of asymptomatic forms of infection among seropositive volunteers were determined. According to a uniform methodology, 3 mL of blood was taken from the examined individuals, and plasma was separated, from which the presence of Abs to nucleocapsid Ag was determined on a Thermo Scientific Multiascan FC device using the “ELISA anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG” reagent set (prod. Scientific Center for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology), in accordance with the developer’s instructions. Volunteers (74,158) were surveyed and divided into seven age groups (1–17, 18–29, 30–39, 40–49, 59–59, 60–69, and 70+ years old), among whom 14,275 were identified as having antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. The average percent seropositive in Russia was 17.8% (IQR: 8.8–23.2). The largest proportion was found among children under 17 years old (21.6% (IQR: 13.1–31.7). In the remaining groups, seroprevalence ranged from 15.6% (IQR: 8–21.1) to 18.0% (IQR: 13.4–22.6). During monitoring, three (immune) response groups were found: (A) groups with a continuous increase in the proportion of seropositive; (B) those with a slow rate of increase in seroprevalence; and (C) those with a two-phase curve, wherein the initial increase was replaced by a decrease in the percentage of seropositive individuals. A significant correlation was revealed between the number of COVID-19 convalescents and contact persons, and between the number of contacts and healthy seropositive volunteers. Among the seropositive volunteers, more than 93.6% (IQR: 87.1–94.9) were asymptomatic. The results show that the COVID-19 pandemic is accompanied by an increase in seroprevalence, which may be important for the formation of herd immunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; herd immunity; asymptomatic form; Russia; population SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; herd immunity; asymptomatic form; Russia; population
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MDPI and ACS Style

Popova, A.Y.; Smirnov, V.S.; Andreeva, E.E.; Babura, E.A.; Balakhonov, S.V.; Bashketova, N.S.; Bugorkova, S.A.; Bulanov, M.V.; Valeullina, N.N.; Vetrov, V.V.; Goryaev, D.V.; Detkovskaya, T.N.; Ezhlova, E.B.; Zaitseva, N.N.; Istorik, O.A.; Kovalchuk, I.V.; Kozlovskikh, D.N.; Kombarova, S.Y.; Kurganova, O.P.; Lomovtsev, A.E.; Lukicheva, L.A.; Lyalina, L.V.; Melnikova, A.A.; Mikailova, O.M.; Noskov, A.K.; Noskova, L.N.; Oglezneva, E.E.; Osmolovskaya, T.P.; Patyashina, M.A.; Penkovskaya, N.A.; Samoilova, L.V.; Stepanova, T.F.; Trotsenko, O.E.; Totolian, A.A. SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence Structure of the Russian Population during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Viruses 2021, 13, 1648.

AMA Style

Popova AY, Smirnov VS, Andreeva EE, Babura EA, Balakhonov SV, Bashketova NS, Bugorkova SA, Bulanov MV, Valeullina NN, Vetrov VV, Goryaev DV, Detkovskaya TN, Ezhlova EB, Zaitseva NN, Istorik OA, Kovalchuk IV, Kozlovskikh DN, Kombarova SY, Kurganova OP, Lomovtsev AE, Lukicheva LA, Lyalina LV, Melnikova AA, Mikailova OM, Noskov AK, Noskova LN, Oglezneva EE, Osmolovskaya TP, Patyashina MA, Penkovskaya NA, Samoilova LV, Stepanova TF, Trotsenko OE, Totolian AA. SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence Structure of the Russian Population during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Viruses. 2021; 13(8):1648.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Popova, Anna Y., Viacheslav S. Smirnov, Elena E. Andreeva, Elena A. Babura, Sergey V. Balakhonov, Natalia S. Bashketova, Svetlana A. Bugorkova, Maxim V. Bulanov, Natalia. N. Valeullina, Viacheslav. V. Vetrov, Dmitriy. V. Goryaev, Tatyana N. Detkovskaya, Elena B. Ezhlova, Natalia N. Zaitseva, Olga A. Istorik, Irina. V. Kovalchuk, Dmitriy N. Kozlovskikh, Svetlana Y. Kombarova, Olga. P. Kurganova, Alexander. E. Lomovtsev, Lena A. Lukicheva, Ludmila V. Lyalina, Albina. A. Melnikova, Olga M. Mikailova, Alexei K. Noskov, Ludmila N. Noskova, Elena E. Oglezneva, Tatyana P. Osmolovskaya, Marina A. Patyashina, Natalia A. Penkovskaya, Lada V. Samoilova, Tatyana F. Stepanova, Olga E. Trotsenko, and Areg A. Totolian. 2021. "SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence Structure of the Russian Population during the COVID-19 Pandemic" Viruses 13, no. 8: 1648.

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