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Review

A Pandemic within Other Pandemics. When a Multiple Infection of a Host Occurs: SARS-CoV-2, HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis

1
Clinical Research in HIV Infection, Endovascular Infection and Bacteriemia, Biomedical Research Institute of Malaga (IBIMA), 29010 Malaga, Spain
2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Malaga, 29071 Malaga, Spain
3
Internal Medicine Service, Melilla Regional Hospital, 52005 Melilla, Spain
4
Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Unit, Virgen de la Victoria Hospital, 29010 Malaga, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Herve J A Fleury
Viruses 2021, 13(5), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13050931
Received: 15 April 2021 / Revised: 12 May 2021 / Accepted: 16 May 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV and SARS-CoV-2 Pathogenesis and Vaccine Development)
By the middle of 2021, we are still immersed in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The concurrence of this new pandemic in regions where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections possess the same epidemiological consideration, has arisen concerns about the prognosis, clinical management, symptomatology, and treatment of patients with triple infection. At the same time, healthcare services previously devoted to diagnosis and treatment of TB and HIV are being jeopardized by the urgent need of resources and attention for COVID-19 patients. The aim of this review was to collect any article considering the three conditions (HIV, TB, and SARS-CoV-2), included in PubMed/Medline and published in the English language since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. We focused on detailed descriptions of the unusual cases describing the three co-infections. Eighty-four out of 184 publications retrieved met our inclusion criteria, but only three of them reported cases (five in total) with the three concomitant infections. The clinical evolution, management, and therapy of all of them were not different from mild/severe cases with exclusive COVID-19; the outcome was not worse either, with recovery for the five patients. Cases of patients with COVID-19 besides HIV and TB infections are scarce in literature, but studies deliberately embracing the triple infection as a priori inclusion criterion should be carried out in order to provide a complete understanding of joint influence. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; HIV; tuberculosis; coinfection; triple-infection SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; HIV; tuberculosis; coinfection; triple-infection
MDPI and ACS Style

González-Domenech, C.M.; Pérez-Hernández, I.; Gómez-Ayerbe, C.; Viciana Ramos, I.; Palacios-Muñoz, R.; Santos, J. A Pandemic within Other Pandemics. When a Multiple Infection of a Host Occurs: SARS-CoV-2, HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Viruses 2021, 13, 931. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13050931

AMA Style

González-Domenech CM, Pérez-Hernández I, Gómez-Ayerbe C, Viciana Ramos I, Palacios-Muñoz R, Santos J. A Pandemic within Other Pandemics. When a Multiple Infection of a Host Occurs: SARS-CoV-2, HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Viruses. 2021; 13(5):931. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13050931

Chicago/Turabian Style

González-Domenech, Carmen M., Isabel Pérez-Hernández, Cristina Gómez-Ayerbe, Isabel Viciana Ramos, Rosario Palacios-Muñoz, and Jesús Santos. 2021. "A Pandemic within Other Pandemics. When a Multiple Infection of a Host Occurs: SARS-CoV-2, HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis" Viruses 13, no. 5: 931. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13050931

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