Next Article in Journal
CRISPR Interference Efficiently Silences Latent and Lytic Viral Genes in Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Infected Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Functional Relevance of the Interaction between Human Cyclins and the Cytomegalovirus-Encoded CDK-Like Protein Kinase pUL97
Previous Article in Journal
Surveillance for Enteroviruses Associated with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, and Other Mucocutaneous Symptoms in Spain, 2006–2020
 
 
Article

Identification of a Chlorovirus PBCV-1 Protein Involved in Degrading the Host Cell Wall during Virus Infection

1
Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0900, USA
2
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0722, USA
3
Department of Structural Biology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
4
Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Qalubiya Governorate, Banha 13511, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jozef Nissimov
Viruses 2021, 13(5), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13050782
Received: 7 April 2021 / Revised: 25 April 2021 / Accepted: 26 April 2021 / Published: 28 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Enzymes)
Chloroviruses are unusual among viruses infecting eukaryotic organisms in that they must, like bacteriophages, penetrate a rigid cell wall to initiate infection. Chlorovirus PBCV-1 infects its host, Chlorella variabilis NC64A by specifically binding to and degrading the cell wall of the host at the point of contact by a virus-packaged enzyme(s). However, PBCV-1 does not use any of the five previously characterized virus-encoded polysaccharide degrading enzymes to digest the Chlorella host cell wall during virus entry because none of the enzymes are packaged in the virion. A search for another PBCV-1-encoded and virion-associated protein identified protein A561L. The fourth domain of A561L is a 242 amino acid C-terminal domain, named A561LD4, with cell wall degrading activity. An A561LD4 homolog was present in all 52 genomically sequenced chloroviruses, infecting four different algal hosts. A561LD4 degraded the cell walls of all four chlorovirus hosts, as well as several non-host Chlorella spp. Thus, A561LD4 was not cell-type specific. Finally, we discovered that exposure of highly purified PBCV-1 virions to A561LD4 increased the specific infectivity of PBCV-1 from about 25–30% of the particles forming plaques to almost 50%. We attribute this increase to removal of residual host receptor that attached to newly replicated viruses in the cell lysates. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chlorella; Phycodnaviridae; chlorovirus; PBCV-1; algal lytic activity; cell wall degrading activity; alginate-like lyase Chlorella; Phycodnaviridae; chlorovirus; PBCV-1; algal lytic activity; cell wall degrading activity; alginate-like lyase
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Agarkova, I.V.; Lane, L.C.; Dunigan, D.D.; Quispe, C.F.; Duncan, G.A.; Milrot, E.; Minsky, A.; Esmael, A.; Ghosh, J.S.; Van Etten, J.L. Identification of a Chlorovirus PBCV-1 Protein Involved in Degrading the Host Cell Wall during Virus Infection. Viruses 2021, 13, 782. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13050782

AMA Style

Agarkova IV, Lane LC, Dunigan DD, Quispe CF, Duncan GA, Milrot E, Minsky A, Esmael A, Ghosh JS, Van Etten JL. Identification of a Chlorovirus PBCV-1 Protein Involved in Degrading the Host Cell Wall during Virus Infection. Viruses. 2021; 13(5):782. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13050782

Chicago/Turabian Style

Agarkova, Irina V., Leslie C. Lane, David D. Dunigan, Cristian F. Quispe, Garry A. Duncan, Elad Milrot, Abraham Minsky, Ahmed Esmael, Jayadri S. Ghosh, and James L. Van Etten. 2021. "Identification of a Chlorovirus PBCV-1 Protein Involved in Degrading the Host Cell Wall during Virus Infection" Viruses 13, no. 5: 782. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13050782

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop