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Review

SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Animals: Reservoirs for Reverse Zoonosis and Models for Study

1
NIHR Health Protection Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7TX, UK
2
Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7BE, UK
3
Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool L9 7LJ, UK
4
Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease, Departments of Vector Biology and Tropical Disease Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
5
Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio Sambri
Viruses 2021, 13(3), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030494
Received: 22 February 2021 / Revised: 12 March 2021 / Accepted: 13 March 2021 / Published: 17 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Emerging Respiratory Viruses in Europe)
The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought many questions over the origin of the virus, the threat it poses to animals both in the wild and captivity, and the risks of a permanent viral reservoir developing in animals. Animal experiments have shown that a variety of animals can become infected with the virus. While coronaviruses have been known to infect animals for decades, the true intermediate host of the virus has not been identified, with no cases of SARS-CoV-2 in wild animals. The screening of wild, farmed, and domesticated animals is necessary to help us understand the virus and its origins and prevent future outbreaks of both COVID-19 and other diseases. There is intriguing evidence that farmed mink infections (acquired from humans) have led to infection of other farm workers in turn, with a recent outbreak of a mink variant in humans in Denmark. A thorough examination of the current knowledge and evidence of the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect different animal species is therefore vital to evaluate the threat of animal to human transmission and reverse zoonosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; animals; reverse zoonosis; intermediate host COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; animals; reverse zoonosis; intermediate host
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MDPI and ACS Style

Prince, T.; Smith, S.L.; Radford, A.D.; Solomon, T.; Hughes, G.L.; Patterson, E.I. SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Animals: Reservoirs for Reverse Zoonosis and Models for Study. Viruses 2021, 13, 494. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030494

AMA Style

Prince T, Smith SL, Radford AD, Solomon T, Hughes GL, Patterson EI. SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Animals: Reservoirs for Reverse Zoonosis and Models for Study. Viruses. 2021; 13(3):494. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030494

Chicago/Turabian Style

Prince, Tessa, Shirley L. Smith, Alan D. Radford, Tom Solomon, Grant L. Hughes, and Edward I. Patterson. 2021. "SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Animals: Reservoirs for Reverse Zoonosis and Models for Study" Viruses 13, no. 3: 494. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030494

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