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Examination of Staphylococcus aureus Prophages Circulating in Egypt

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Bioinformatics Program, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL 60660, USA
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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
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Departmento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Brazil
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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria 25435, Egypt
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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alalamein International University, Alalamein 51718, Egypt
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Department of Biology, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL 60660, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dann Turner
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020337
Received: 27 January 2021 / Revised: 10 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Viruses)
Staphylococcus aureus infections are of growing concern given the increased incidence of antibiotic resistant strains. Egypt, like several other countries, has seen alarming increases in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. This species can rapidly acquire genes associated with resistance, as well as virulence factors, through mobile genetic elements, including phages. Recently, we sequenced 56 S. aureus genomes from Alexandria Main University Hospital in Alexandria, Egypt, complementing 17 S. aureus genomes publicly available from other sites in Egypt. In the current study, we found that the majority (73.6%) of these strains contain intact prophages, including Biseptimaviruses, Phietaviruses, and Triaviruses. Further investigation of these prophages revealed evidence of horizontal exchange of the integrase for two of the prophages. These Egyptian S. aureus prophages are predicted to encode numerous virulence factors, including genes associated with immune evasion and toxins, including the Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-associated genes lukF-PV/lukS-PV. Thus, prophages are likely to be a major contributor to the virulence of S. aureus strains in circulation in Egypt. View Full-Text
Keywords: prophages; Staphylococcus aureus; PVL; Egypt prophages; Staphylococcus aureus; PVL; Egypt
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ene, A.; Miller-Ensminger, T.; Mores, C.R.; Giannattasio-Ferraz, S.; Wolfe, A.J.; Abouelfetouh, A.; Putonti, C. Examination of Staphylococcus aureus Prophages Circulating in Egypt. Viruses 2021, 13, 337. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020337

AMA Style

Ene A, Miller-Ensminger T, Mores CR, Giannattasio-Ferraz S, Wolfe AJ, Abouelfetouh A, Putonti C. Examination of Staphylococcus aureus Prophages Circulating in Egypt. Viruses. 2021; 13(2):337. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020337

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ene, Adriana, Taylor Miller-Ensminger, Carine R. Mores, Silvia Giannattasio-Ferraz, Alan J. Wolfe, Alaa Abouelfetouh, and Catherine Putonti. 2021. "Examination of Staphylococcus aureus Prophages Circulating in Egypt" Viruses 13, no. 2: 337. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020337

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