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Article

Anti-SU Antibody Responses in Client-Owned Cats Following Vaccination against Feline Leukaemia Virus with Two Inactivated Whole-Virus Vaccines (Fel-O-Vax® Lv-K and Fel-O-Vax® 5)

1
Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia
2
Centre for Veterinary Education, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia
3
Clinical Laboratory, Department of Clinical Diagnostics and Services, and Center for Clinical Studies, Vetsuisse Faculty, The University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland
4
MRC—University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Garscube Campus, Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK
5
Veterinary Diagnostic Services, The University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shan-Lu Liu
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020240
Received: 29 December 2020 / Revised: 29 January 2021 / Accepted: 2 February 2021 / Published: 3 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Infections in Companion Animals)
A field study undertaken in Australia compared the antibody responses induced in client-owned cats that had been vaccinated using two inactivated whole feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) vaccines, the monovalent vaccine Fel-O-Vax® Lv-K and the polyvalent vaccine Fel-O-Vax® 5. Serum samples from 428 FeLV-uninfected cats (118 FeLV-vaccinated and 310 FeLV-unvaccinated) were tested for anti-FeLV neutralising antibodies (NAb) using a live virus neutralisation assay to identify 378 FeLV-unexposed (NAb-negative) and 50 FeLV-exposed (NAb-positive; abortive infections) cats, following by anti-surface unit (SU) FeLV-A and FeLV-B antibody ELISA testing. An additional 42 FeLV-infected cats (28 presumptively regressively infected, 14 presumptively progressively infected) were also tested for anti-SU antibodies. NAb-positive cats displayed significantly higher anti-SU antibody ELISA responses compared to NAb-negative cats (p < 0.001). FeLV-unexposed cats (NAb-negative) that had been vaccinated less than 18 months after a previous FeLV vaccination using the monovalent vaccine (Fel-O-Vax® Lv-K) displayed higher anti-SU antibody ELISA responses than a comparable group vaccinated with the polyvalent vaccine (Fel-O-Vax® 5) (p < 0.001 for both anti-FeLV-A and FeLV-B SU antibody responses). This difference in anti-SU antibody responses between cats vaccinated with the monovalent or polyvalent vaccine, however, was not observed in cats that had been naturally exposed to FeLV (NAb-positive) (p = 0.33). It was postulated that vaccination with Fel-O-Vax® 5 primed the humoral response prior to FeLV exposure, such that antibody production increased when the animal was challenged, while vaccination with Fel-O-Vax® Lv-K induced an immediate preparatory antibody response that did not quantitatively increase after FeLV exposure. These results raise questions about the comparable vaccine efficacy of the different FeLV vaccine formulations and correlates of protection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Australia; FeLV vaccination; humoral immunity; FeLV infection; vaccine efficacy; veterinary science Australia; FeLV vaccination; humoral immunity; FeLV infection; vaccine efficacy; veterinary science
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MDPI and ACS Style

Westman, M.; Norris, J.; Malik, R.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Parr, Y.A.; Armstrong, E.; McDonald, M.; Hall, E.; Sheehy, P.; Hosie, M.J. Anti-SU Antibody Responses in Client-Owned Cats Following Vaccination against Feline Leukaemia Virus with Two Inactivated Whole-Virus Vaccines (Fel-O-Vax® Lv-K and Fel-O-Vax® 5). Viruses 2021, 13, 240. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020240

AMA Style

Westman M, Norris J, Malik R, Hofmann-Lehmann R, Parr YA, Armstrong E, McDonald M, Hall E, Sheehy P, Hosie MJ. Anti-SU Antibody Responses in Client-Owned Cats Following Vaccination against Feline Leukaemia Virus with Two Inactivated Whole-Virus Vaccines (Fel-O-Vax® Lv-K and Fel-O-Vax® 5). Viruses. 2021; 13(2):240. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020240

Chicago/Turabian Style

Westman, Mark, Jacqueline Norris, Richard Malik, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Yasmin A. Parr, Emma Armstrong, Mike McDonald, Evelyn Hall, Paul Sheehy, and Margaret J. Hosie 2021. "Anti-SU Antibody Responses in Client-Owned Cats Following Vaccination against Feline Leukaemia Virus with Two Inactivated Whole-Virus Vaccines (Fel-O-Vax® Lv-K and Fel-O-Vax® 5)" Viruses 13, no. 2: 240. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020240

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