Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes great economic losses in the cattle industry. Herpesvirus infection generally induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in infected cells. However, it is not clear whether ER stress and UPR can be induced by BoHV-1 infection. Here, we found that ER stress induced by BoHV-1 infection could activate all three UPR sensors (the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and the protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK)) in MDBK cells. During BoHV-1 infection, the ATF6 pathway of UPR did not affect viral replication. However, both knockdown and specific chemical inhibition of PERK attenuated the BoHV-1 proliferation, and chemical inhibition of PERK significantly reduced the viral replication at the post-entry step of the BoHV-1 life cycle. Furthermore, knockdown of IRE1 inhibits BoHV-1 replication, indicating that the IRE1 pathway may promote viral replication. Further study revealed that BoHV-1 replication was enhanced by IRE1 RNase activity inhibition at the stage of virus post-entry in MDBK cells. Furthermore, IRE1 kinase activity inhibition and RNase activity enhancement decrease BoHV1 replication via affecting the virus post-entry step. Our study revealed that BoHV-1 infection activated all three UPR signaling pathways in MDBK cells, and BoHV-1-induced PERK and IRE1 pathways may promote viral replication. This study provides a new perspective for the interactions of BoHV-1 and UPR, which is helpful to further elucidate the mechanism of BoHV-1 pathogenesis.
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