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Enteric Viral Co-Infections: Pathogenesis and Perspective

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Edison Family Center for Genome Sciences & Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(8), 904;
Received: 13 July 2020 / Revised: 10 August 2020 / Accepted: 14 August 2020 / Published: 18 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Coinfection)
Enteric viral co-infections, infections involving more than one virus, have been reported for a diverse group of etiological agents, including rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and enteroviruses. These pathogens are causative agents for acute gastroenteritis and diarrheal disease in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals of all ages globally. Despite virus–virus co-infection events in the intestine being increasingly detected, little is known about their impact on disease outcomes or human health. Here, we review what is currently known about the clinical prevalence of virus–virus co-infections and how co-infections may influence vaccine responses. While experimental investigations into enteric virus co-infections have been limited, we highlight in vivo and in vitro models with exciting potential to investigate viral co-infections. Many features of virus–virus co-infection mechanisms in the intestine remain unclear, and further research will be critical. View Full-Text
Keywords: enteric virus; co-infection; viral pathogenesis; co-infection models enteric virus; co-infection; viral pathogenesis; co-infection models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Makimaa, H.; Ingle, H.; Baldridge, M.T. Enteric Viral Co-Infections: Pathogenesis and Perspective. Viruses 2020, 12, 904.

AMA Style

Makimaa H, Ingle H, Baldridge MT. Enteric Viral Co-Infections: Pathogenesis and Perspective. Viruses. 2020; 12(8):904.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Makimaa, Heyde, Harshad Ingle, and Megan T. Baldridge 2020. "Enteric Viral Co-Infections: Pathogenesis and Perspective" Viruses 12, no. 8: 904.

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