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Open AccessArticle

Investigation of Novel RNA Elements in the 3′UTR of Tobacco Necrosis Virus-D

Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(8), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12080856
Received: 17 July 2020 / Revised: 1 August 2020 / Accepted: 4 August 2020 / Published: 6 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
RNA elements in the untranslated regions of plus-strand RNA viruses can control a variety of viral processes including translation, replication, packaging, and subgenomic mRNA production. The 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of Tobacco necrosis virus strain D (TNV-D; genus Betanecrovirus, family Tombusviridae) contains several well studied regulatory RNA elements. Here, we explore a previously unexamined region of the viral 3′UTR, the sequence located upstream of the 3′-cap independent translation enhancer (3′CITE). Our results indicate that (i) a long-range RNA–RNA interaction between an internal RNA element and the 3′UTR facilitates translational readthrough, and may also promote viral RNA synthesis; (ii) a conserved RNA hairpin, SLX, is required for efficient genome accumulation; and (iii) an adenine-rich region upstream of the 3′CITE is dispensable, but can modulate genome accumulation. These findings identified novel regulatory RNA elements in the 3′UTR of the TNV-D genome that are important for virus survival. View Full-Text
Keywords: plant virus; RNA virus; 3′UTR; recoding; readthrough; cap-independent translation; RNA structure; tombusviridae; betanecrovirus plant virus; RNA virus; 3′UTR; recoding; readthrough; cap-independent translation; RNA structure; tombusviridae; betanecrovirus
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Newburn, L.R.; Wu, B.; White, K.A. Investigation of Novel RNA Elements in the 3′UTR of Tobacco Necrosis Virus-D. Viruses 2020, 12, 856.

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