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Virus Pathogens in Australian Vineyards with an Emphasis on Shiraz Disease

1
School of Agriculture, Food & Wine, University of Adelaide, Waite Precinct, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, Adelaide 5064, South Australia, Australia
2
The Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, Adelaide 5064, South Australia, Australia
3
Agriculture Victoria Research, Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, AgriBio, Bundoora, Melbourne 3083, Victoria, Australia
4
Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
5
Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X134, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
In memory of Professor Giovanni Martelli.
These authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Viruses 2020, 12(8), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12080818
Received: 24 June 2020 / Revised: 24 July 2020 / Accepted: 25 July 2020 / Published: 28 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
Grapevine viruses are found throughout the viticultural world and have detrimental effects on vine productivity and grape and wine quality. This report provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review on grapevine viruses in Australia with a focus on “Shiraz Disease” (SD) and its two major associated viruses, grapevine virus A (GVA) and grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3). Sensitive grapevine cultivars like Shiraz infected with GVA alone or with a co-infection of a leafroll virus, primarily GLRaV-3, show symptoms of SD leading to significant yield and quality reductions in Australia and in South Africa. Symptom descriptors for SD will be outlined and a phylogenetic tree will be presented indicating the SD-associated isolates of GVA in both countries belong to the same clade. Virus transmission, which occurs through infected propagation material, grafting, and naturally vectored by mealybugs and scale insects, will be discussed. Laboratory and field-based indexing will also be discussed along with management strategies including rogueing and replanting certified stock that decrease the incidence and spread of SD. Finally, we present several cases of SD incidence in South Australian vineyards and their effects on vine productivity. We conclude by offering strategies for virus detection and management that can be adopted by viticulturists. Novel technologies such as high throughput sequencing and remote sensing for virus detection will be outlined. View Full-Text
Keywords: grapevine; high throughput sequencing; vectors; rogueing; leafroll disease; scale insects; mealybugs grapevine; high throughput sequencing; vectors; rogueing; leafroll disease; scale insects; mealybugs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, Q.; Habili, N.; Constable, F.; Al Rwahnih, M.; Goszczynski, D.E.; Wang, Y.; Pagay, V. Virus Pathogens in Australian Vineyards with an Emphasis on Shiraz Disease. Viruses 2020, 12, 818. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12080818

AMA Style

Wu Q, Habili N, Constable F, Al Rwahnih M, Goszczynski DE, Wang Y, Pagay V. Virus Pathogens in Australian Vineyards with an Emphasis on Shiraz Disease. Viruses. 2020; 12(8):818. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12080818

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Qi, Nuredin Habili, Fiona Constable, Maher Al Rwahnih, Darius E. Goszczynski, Yeniu Wang, and Vinay Pagay. 2020. "Virus Pathogens in Australian Vineyards with an Emphasis on Shiraz Disease" Viruses 12, no. 8: 818. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12080818

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