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A Novel Inducible Prophage from Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 Is Widely Distributed across the Species and Has Lytic Activity against Pathogenic Burkholderia

1
Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3NB, UK
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Department of Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0J9, Canada
3
Public Health England, National Infection Service, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JG, UK
4
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
5
School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ, UK
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Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(6), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12060601
Received: 1 May 2020 / Revised: 27 May 2020 / Accepted: 29 May 2020 / Published: 31 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Viruses)
Burkholderia species have environmental, industrial and medical significance, and are important opportunistic pathogens in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Using a combination of existing and newly determined genome sequences, this study investigated prophage carriage across the species B. vietnamiensis, and also isolated spontaneously inducible prophages from a reference strain, G4. Eighty-one B. vietnamiensis genomes were bioinformatically screened for prophages using PHASTER (Phage Search Tool Enhanced Release) and prophage regions were found to comprise up to 3.4% of total genetic material. Overall, 115 intact prophages were identified and there was evidence of polylysogeny in 32 strains. A novel, inducible Mu-like phage (vB_BvM-G4P1) was isolated from B. vietnamiensis G4 that had lytic activity against strains of five Burkholderia species prevalent in CF infections, including the Boston epidemic B. dolosa strain SLC6. The cognate prophage to vB_BvM-G4P1 was identified in the lysogen genome and was almost identical (>93.5% tblastx identity) to prophages found in 13 other B. vietnamiensis strains (17% of the strain collection). Phylogenomic analysis determined that the G4P1-like prophages were widely distributed across the population structure of B. vietnamiensis. This study highlights how genomic characterization of Burkholderia prophages can lead to the discovery of novel bacteriophages with potential therapeutic or biotechnological applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: Burkholderia vietnamiensis; prophages; phylogenomics; induction; lysogeny; phage classification Burkholderia vietnamiensis; prophages; phylogenomics; induction; lysogeny; phage classification
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Weiser, R.; Yap, Z.L.; Otter, A.; Jones, B.V.; Salvage, J.; Parkhill, J.; Mahenthiralingam, E. A Novel Inducible Prophage from Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 Is Widely Distributed across the Species and Has Lytic Activity against Pathogenic Burkholderia. Viruses 2020, 12, 601.

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