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Open AccessReview

Nipah Virus: Past Outbreaks and Future Containment

Virology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala, India
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040465
Received: 13 March 2020 / Revised: 6 April 2020 / Accepted: 8 April 2020 / Published: 20 April 2020
Viral outbreaks of varying frequencies and severities have caused panic and havoc across the globe throughout history. Influenza, small pox, measles, and yellow fever reverberated for centuries, causing huge burden for economies. The twenty-first century witnessed the most pathogenic and contagious virus outbreaks of zoonotic origin including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Ebola virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Nipah virus. Nipah is considered one of the world’s deadliest viruses with the heaviest mortality rates in some instances. It is known to cause encephalitis, with cases of acute respiratory distress turning fatal. Various factors contribute to the onset and spread of the virus. All through the infected zone, various strategies to tackle and enhance the surveillance and awareness with greater emphasis on personal hygiene has been formulated. This review discusses the recent outbreaks of Nipah virus in Malaysia, Bangladesh and India, the routes of transmission, prevention and control measures employed along with possible reasons behind the outbreaks, and the precautionary measures to be ensured by private–public undertakings to contain and ensure a lower incidence in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: emerging virus; Nipah; outbreak; transmission; prevention; control emerging virus; Nipah; outbreak; transmission; prevention; control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Soman Pillai, V.; Krishna, G.; Valiya Veettil, M. Nipah Virus: Past Outbreaks and Future Containment. Viruses 2020, 12, 465.

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