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Differences in Tissue and Species Tropism of Reptarenavirus Species Studied by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotypes

1
Medicum, Department of Virology, University of Helsinki, 00100 Helsinki, Finland
2
Vetsuisse Faculty, Institute of Veterinary Pathology, University of Zürich, 8006 Zürich, Switzerland
3
Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00100 Helsinki, Finland
4
Department of Immunology and Microbial Science IMM-6, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
5
Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78227, USA
6
Department of Virology, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, 00100 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040395
Received: 4 March 2020 / Revised: 29 March 2020 / Accepted: 31 March 2020 / Published: 2 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Reptarenaviruses cause Boid Inclusion Body Disease (BIBD), and co-infections by several reptarenaviruses are common in affected snakes. Reptarenaviruses have only been found in captive snakes, and their reservoir hosts remain unknown. In affected animals, reptarenaviruses appear to replicate in most cell types, but their complete host range, as well as tissue and cell tropism are unknown. As with other enveloped viruses, the glycoproteins (GPs) present on the virion’s surface mediate reptarenavirus cell entry, and therefore, the GPs play a critical role in the virus cell and tissue tropism. Herein, we employed single cycle replication, GP deficient, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (scrVSV∆G-eGFP) pseudotyped with different reptarenavirus GPs to study the virus cell tropism. We found that scrVSV∆G-eGFPs pseudotyped with reptarenavirus GPs readily entered mammalian cell lines, and some mammalian cell lines exhibited higher, compared to snake cell lines, susceptibility to reptarenavirus GP-mediated infection. Mammarenavirus GPs used as controls also mediated efficient entry into several snake cell lines. Our results confirm an important role of the virus surface GP in reptarenavirus cell tropism and that mamma-and reptarenaviruses exhibit high cross-species transmission potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: BIBD; reptarenavirus; arenavirus; VSV; pseudotype; tissue tropism BIBD; reptarenavirus; arenavirus; VSV; pseudotype; tissue tropism
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Korzyukov, Y.; Iheozor-Ejiofor, R.; Levanov, L.; Smura, T.; Hetzel, U.; Szirovicza, L.; de la Torre, J.C.; Martinez-Sobrido, L.; Kipar, A.; Vapalahti, O.; Hepojoki, J. Differences in Tissue and Species Tropism of Reptarenavirus Species Studied by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotypes. Viruses 2020, 12, 395.

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