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Differential Features of Fusion Activation within the Paramyxoviridae

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
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Viruses 2020, 12(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12020161
Received: 17 December 2019 / Revised: 25 January 2020 / Accepted: 29 January 2020 / Published: 30 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Entry Pathways)
Paramyxovirus (PMV) entry requires the coordinated action of two envelope glycoproteins, the receptor binding protein (RBP) and fusion protein (F). The sequence of events that occurs during the PMV entry process is tightly regulated. This regulation ensures entry will only initiate when the virion is in the vicinity of a target cell membrane. Here, we review recent structural and mechanistic studies to delineate the entry features that are shared and distinct amongst the Paramyxoviridae. In general, we observe overarching distinctions between the protein-using RBPs and the sialic acid- (SA-) using RBPs, including how their stalk domains differentially trigger F. Moreover, through sequence comparisons, we identify greater structural and functional conservation amongst the PMV fusion proteins, as compared to the RBPs. When examining the relative contributions to sequence conservation of the globular head versus stalk domains of the RBP, we observe that, for the protein-using PMVs, the stalk domains exhibit higher conservation and find the opposite trend is true for SA-using PMVs. A better understanding of conserved and distinct features that govern the entry of protein-using versus SA-using PMVs will inform the rational design of broader spectrum therapeutics that impede this process. View Full-Text
Keywords: paramyxovirus; viral envelope proteins; type I fusion protein; henipavirus; virus entry; viral transmission; structure; rubulavirus; parainfluenza virus paramyxovirus; viral envelope proteins; type I fusion protein; henipavirus; virus entry; viral transmission; structure; rubulavirus; parainfluenza virus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Azarm, K.D.; Lee, B. Differential Features of Fusion Activation within the Paramyxoviridae. Viruses 2020, 12, 161. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12020161

AMA Style

Azarm KD, Lee B. Differential Features of Fusion Activation within the Paramyxoviridae. Viruses. 2020; 12(2):161. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12020161

Chicago/Turabian Style

Azarm, Kristopher D., and Benhur Lee. 2020. "Differential Features of Fusion Activation within the Paramyxoviridae" Viruses 12, no. 2: 161. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12020161

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