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Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Subviral Particles as Protective Vaccines and Vaccine Platforms

1
Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL), Melbourne Health, The Peter Doherty Institute, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia
2
Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University, School of Science, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(2), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12020126
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 13 January 2020 / Accepted: 13 January 2020 / Published: 21 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Like Particle Vaccines)
Hepatitis B remains one of the major global health problems more than 40 years after the identification of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) as the causative agent. A critical turning point in combating this virus was the development of a preventative vaccine composed of the HBV surface (envelope) protein (HBsAg) to reduce the risk of new infections. The isolation of HBsAg sub-viral particles (SVPs) from the blood of asymptomatic HBV carriers as antigens for the first-generation vaccines, followed by the development of recombinant HBsAg SVPs produced in yeast as the antigenic components of the second-generation vaccines, represent landmark advancements in biotechnology and medicine. The ability of the HBsAg SVPs to accept and present foreign antigenic sequences provides the basis of a chimeric particulate delivery platform, and resulted in the development of a vaccine against malaria (RTS,S/AS01, MosquirixTM), and various preclinical vaccine candidates to overcome infectious diseases for which there are no effective vaccines. Biomedical modifications of the HBsAg subunits allowed the identification of strategies to enhance the HBsAg SVP immunogenicity to build potent vaccines for preventative and possibly therapeutic applications. The review provides an overview of the formation and assembly of the HBsAg SVPs and highlights the utilization of the particles in key effective vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis B virus; surface (envelope) antigen; sub-viral particle; virus-like particle hepatitis B virus; surface (envelope) antigen; sub-viral particle; virus-like particle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ho, J. .-T.; Jeevan-Raj, B.; Netter, H.-J. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Subviral Particles as Protective Vaccines and Vaccine Platforms. Viruses 2020, 12, 126.

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