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Article

CD4, CD8b, and Cytokines Expression Profiles in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Infected with Different Subtypes of KoRV from Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in a Japanese Zoo

1
Transboundary Animal Diseases Centre, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
2
Department of Microbiology and Public Health, Faculty of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Barishal 8210, Bangladesh
3
Department of Health, Chattogram City Corporation, Chattogram 4000, Bangladesh
4
Hirakawa Zoological Park, Kagoshima 891-0133, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Karla Helbig and Subir Sarker
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121415
Received: 19 November 2020 / Revised: 6 December 2020 / Accepted: 7 December 2020 / Published: 9 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal and Wildlife Viruses)
Koala retrovirus (KoRV) poses a major threat to koala health and conservation, and currently has 10 identified subtypes: an endogenous subtype (KoRV-A) and nine exogenous subtypes (KoRV-B to KoRV-J). However, subtype-related variations in koala immune response to KoRV are uncharacterized. In this study, we investigated KoRV-related immunophenotypic changes in a captive koala population (Hirakawa zoo, Japan) with a range of subtype infection profiles (KoRV-A only vs. KoRV-A with KoRV-B and/or -C), based on qPCR measurements of CD4, CD8b, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17A mRNA expression in unstimulated and concanavalin (Con)-A-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Although CD4, CD8b, and IL-17A expression did not differ between KoRV subtype infection profiles, IL-6 expression was higher in koalas with exogenous infections (both KoRV-B and KoRV-C) than those with the endogenous subtype only. IL-10 expression did not significantly differ between subtype infection profiles but did show a marked increase—accompanying decreased CD4:CD8b ratio—in a koala with lymphoma and co-infected with KoRV-A and -B, thus suggesting immunosuppression. Taken together, the findings of this study provide insights into koala immune response to multiple KoRV subtypes, which can be exploited for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions for this iconic marsupial species. View Full-Text
Keywords: koala; koala retrovirus; peripheral blood mononuclear cells; CD4; CD8b; cytokines koala; koala retrovirus; peripheral blood mononuclear cells; CD4; CD8b; cytokines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kayesh, M.E.H.; Hashem, M.A.; Maetani, F.; Eiei, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Ochiai, S.; Ito, A.; Ito, N.; Sakurai, H.; Asai, T.; Tsukiyama-Kohara, K. CD4, CD8b, and Cytokines Expression Profiles in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Infected with Different Subtypes of KoRV from Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in a Japanese Zoo. Viruses 2020, 12, 1415. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121415

AMA Style

Kayesh MEH, Hashem MA, Maetani F, Eiei T, Mochizuki K, Ochiai S, Ito A, Ito N, Sakurai H, Asai T, Tsukiyama-Kohara K. CD4, CD8b, and Cytokines Expression Profiles in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Infected with Different Subtypes of KoRV from Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in a Japanese Zoo. Viruses. 2020; 12(12):1415. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121415

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kayesh, Mohammad Enamul Hoque, Md Abul Hashem, Fumie Maetani, Taiki Eiei, Kyoya Mochizuki, Shinsaku Ochiai, Ayaka Ito, Nanao Ito, Hiroko Sakurai, Takayuki Asai, and Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara. 2020. "CD4, CD8b, and Cytokines Expression Profiles in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Infected with Different Subtypes of KoRV from Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in a Japanese Zoo" Viruses 12, no. 12: 1415. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121415

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