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Open AccessReview

Walking Together: Cross-Protection, Genome Conservation, and the Replication Machinery of Citrus tristeza virus

1
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
2
Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
3
Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, FL 33850, USA
4
The S. Tolkowsky Laboratory, Department of Plant Pathology, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan 7505101, Israel
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Retired.
Academic Editors: Olivier Lemaire and Etienne Herrbach
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121353
Received: 28 October 2020 / Accepted: 25 November 2020 / Published: 26 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Closteroviridae)
“Cross-protection”, a nearly 100 years-old virological term, is suggested to be changed to “close protection”. Evidence for the need of such change has accumulated over the past six decades from the laboratory experiments and field tests conducted by plant pathologists and plant virologists working with different plant viruses, and, in particular, from research on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). A direct confirmation of such close protection came with the finding that “pre-immunization” of citrus plants with the variants of the T36 strain of CTV but not with variants of other virus strains was providing protection against a fluorescent protein-tagged T36-based recombinant virus variant. Under natural conditions close protection is functional and is closely associated both with the conservation of the CTV genome sequence and prevention of superinfection by closely similar isolates. It is suggested that the mechanism is primarily directed to prevent the danger of virus population collapse that could be expected to result through quasispecies divergence of large RNA genomes of the CTV variants continuously replicating within long-living and highly voluminous fruit trees. This review article provides an overview of the CTV cross-protection research, along with a discussion of the phenomenon in the context of the CTV biology and genetics. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA virus; closterovirus; Citrus tristeza virus; cross-protection; close protection; superinfection exclusion; virus population collapse; quasispecies divergence; stem pitting; genome conservation RNA virus; closterovirus; Citrus tristeza virus; cross-protection; close protection; superinfection exclusion; virus population collapse; quasispecies divergence; stem pitting; genome conservation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Folimonova, S.Y.; Achor, D.; Bar-Joseph, M. Walking Together: Cross-Protection, Genome Conservation, and the Replication Machinery of Citrus tristeza virus. Viruses 2020, 12, 1353. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121353

AMA Style

Folimonova SY, Achor D, Bar-Joseph M. Walking Together: Cross-Protection, Genome Conservation, and the Replication Machinery of Citrus tristeza virus. Viruses. 2020; 12(12):1353. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121353

Chicago/Turabian Style

Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Achor, Diann; Bar-Joseph, Moshe. 2020. "Walking Together: Cross-Protection, Genome Conservation, and the Replication Machinery of Citrus tristeza virus" Viruses 12, no. 12: 1353. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121353

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