Viral protein R (Vpr) is an accessory protein found in various primate lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) as well as simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). Vpr modulates many processes during viral lifecycle via interaction with several of cellular targets. Previous studies showed that HIV-1 Vpr strengthened degradation of Mini-chromosome Maintenance Protein10 (MCM10) by manipulating DCAF1-Cul4-E3 ligase in proteasome-dependent pathway. However, whether Vpr from other primate lentiviruses are also associated with MCM10 degradation and the ensuing impact remain unknown. Based on phylogenetic analyses, a panel of primate lentiviruses Vpr/x covering main virus lineages was prepared. Distinct MCM10 degradation profiles were mapped and HIV-1, SIVmus and SIVrcm Vprs induced MCM10 degradation in proteasome-dependent pathway. Colocalization and interaction between MCM10 with these Vprs were also observed. Moreover, MCM10 2-7 interaction region was identified as a determinant region susceptible to degradation. However, MCM10 degradation did not alleviate DNA damage response induced by these Vpr proteins. MCM10 degradation by HIV-1 Vpr proteins was correlated with G2
/M arrest, while induction of apoptosis and oligomerization formation of Vpr failed to alter MCM10 proteolysis. The current study demonstrated a distinct interplay pattern between primate lentiviruses Vpr proteins and MCM10.
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