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Marine Morbilliviruses: Diversity and Interaction with Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecules

1
Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, 1583, Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0297, Japan
2
School of Marine Biosciences, Kitasato University, 1-15-1, Kitazato, Minami, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0373, Japan
3
Department of Virology III, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-7-1, Gakuen, Musashimurayama, Tokyo 208-0011, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070606
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 29 June 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morbilliviruses)
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Abstract

Epidemiological reports of phocine distemper virus (PDV) and cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) have accumulated since their discovery nearly 30 years ago. In this review, we focus on the interaction between these marine morbilliviruses and their major cellular receptor, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). The three-dimensional crystal structure and homology models of SLAMs have demonstrated that 35 residues are important for binding to the morbillivirus hemagglutinin (H) protein and contribute to viral tropism. These 35 residues are essentially conserved among pinnipeds and highly conserved among the Caniformia, suggesting that PDV can infect these animals, but are less conserved among cetaceans. Because CeMV can infect various cetacean species, including toothed and baleen whales, the CeMV-H protein is postulated to have broader specificity to accommodate more divergent SLAM interfaces and may enable the virus to infect seals. In silico analysis of viral H protein and SLAM indicates that each residue of the H protein interacts with multiple residues of SLAM and vice versa. The integration of epidemiological, virological, structural, and computational studies should provide deeper insight into host specificity and switching of marine morbilliviruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: cetacean morbillivirus; host specificity; marine mammal; morbillivirus; phocine distemper virus; receptor; signaling lymphocyte activation molecule cetacean morbillivirus; host specificity; marine mammal; morbillivirus; phocine distemper virus; receptor; signaling lymphocyte activation molecule
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Ohishi, K.; Maruyama, T.; Seki, F.; Takeda, M. Marine Morbilliviruses: Diversity and Interaction with Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecules. Viruses 2019, 11, 606.

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