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Ranaviruses Bind Cells from Different Species through Interaction with Heparan Sulfate

1
State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, The Innovation Academy of Seed Design, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China
2
College of Modern Agriculture Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070593
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 29 June 2019
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Abstract

Ranavirus cross-species infections have been documented, but the viral proteins involved in the interaction with cell receptors have not yet been identified. Here, viral cell-binding proteins and their cognate cellular receptors were investigated using two ranaviruses, Andrias davidianus ranavirus (ADRV) and Rana grylio virus (RGV), and two different cell lines, Chinese giant salamander thymus cells (GSTC) and Epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cells. The heparan sulfate (HS) analog heparin inhibited plaque formation of ADRV and RGV in the two cell lines by more than 80% at a concentration of 5 μg/mL. In addition, enzymatic removal of cell surface HS by heparinase I markedly reduced plaque formation by both viruses and competition with heparin reduced virus-cell binding. These results indicate that cell surface HS is involved in ADRV and RGV cell binding and infection. Furthermore, recombinant viral envelope proteins ADRV-58L and RGV-53R bound heparin-Sepharose beads implying the potential that cell surface HS is involved in the initial interaction between ranaviruses and susceptible host cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report identifying cell surface HS as ranavirus binding factor and furthers understanding of interactions between ranaviruses and host cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: ranavirus; virus binding; heparan sulfate; Andrias davidianus ranavirus; Rana grylio virus; envelope protein ranavirus; virus binding; heparan sulfate; Andrias davidianus ranavirus; Rana grylio virus; envelope protein
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Ke, F.; Wang, Z.-H.; Ming, C.-Y.; Zhang, Q.-Y. Ranaviruses Bind Cells from Different Species through Interaction with Heparan Sulfate. Viruses 2019, 11, 593.

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