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Open AccessArticle

Unravelling the Single-Stranded DNA Virome of the New Zealand Blackfly

1
The Biodesign Center for Fundamental and Applied Microbiomics, Center for Evolution and Medicine, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5001, USA
2
School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
3
Structural Biology Research Unit, Department of Integrative Biomedical Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7700, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060532
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 1 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 8 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viromics: Approaches, Advances, and Applications)
Over the last decade, arthropods have been shown to harbour a rich diversity of viruses. Through viral metagenomics a large diversity of single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses have been identified. Here we examine the ssDNA virome of the hematophagous New Zealand blackfly using viral metagenomics. Our investigation reveals a plethora of novel ssDNA viral genomes, some of which cluster in the viral families Genomoviridae (n = 9), Circoviridae (n = 1), and Microviridae (n = 108), others in putative families that, at present, remain unclassified (n = 20) and one DNA molecule that only encodes a replication associated protein. Among these novel viruses, two putative multi-component virus genomes were recovered, and these are most closely related to a Tongan flying fox faeces-associated multi-component virus. Given that the only other known multi-component circular replication-associated (Rep) protein encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses infecting plants are in the families Geminiviridae (members of the genus Begomovirus) and Nanoviridae, it appears these are likely a new multi-component virus group which may be associated with animals. This study reiterates the diversity of ssDNA viruses in nature and in particular with the New Zealand blackflies. View Full-Text
Keywords: blackfly; sandfly; Austrosimulium sp.; CRESS DNA virus; Circoviridae; Genomoviridae blackfly; sandfly; Austrosimulium sp.; CRESS DNA virus; Circoviridae; Genomoviridae
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Kraberger, S.; Schmidlin, K.; Fontenele, R.S.; Walters, M.; Varsani, A. Unravelling the Single-Stranded DNA Virome of the New Zealand Blackfly. Viruses 2019, 11, 532.

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