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Evaluation of Phage Therapy in the Context of Enterococcus faecalis and Its Associated Diseases

1
APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork T12 YT20, Ireland
2
School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork T12 YN60, Ireland
3
Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Cork P61 C996, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2019, 11(4), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11040366
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 20 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality)
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Abstract

Bacteriophages (phages) or bacterial viruses have been proposed as natural antimicrobial agents to fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with human infections. Enterococcus faecalis is a gut commensal, which is occasionally found in the mouth and vaginal tract, and does not usually cause clinical problems. However, it can spread to other areas of the body and cause life-threatening infections, such as septicemia, endocarditis, or meningitis, in immunocompromised hosts. Although E. faecalis phage cocktails are not commercially available within the EU or USA, there is an accumulated evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies that have shown phage efficacy, which supports the idea of applying phage therapy to overcome infections associated with E. faecalis. In this review, we discuss the potency of bacteriophages in controlling E. faecalis, in both in vitro and in vivo scenarios. E. faecalis associated bacteriophages were compared at the genome level and an attempt was made to categorize phages with respect to their suitability for therapeutic application, using orthocluster analysis. In addition, E. faecalis phages have been examined for the presence of antibiotic-resistant genes, to ensure their safe use in clinical conditions. Finally, the domain architecture of E. faecalis phage-encoded endolysins are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: phage therapy; E. faecalis; OrthoMCL phage therapy; E. faecalis; OrthoMCL
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Bolocan, A.S.; Upadrasta, A.; de Almeida Bettio, P.H.; Clooney, A.G.; Draper, L.A.; Ross, R.P.; Hill, C. Evaluation of Phage Therapy in the Context of Enterococcus faecalis and Its Associated Diseases. Viruses 2019, 11, 366.

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