Next Article in Journal
Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 Subtype G in the Russian Federation
Previous Article in Journal
Influenza Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase: Yin–Yang Proteins Coevolving to Thwart Immunity
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2019, 11(4), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11040347

Dynamics of Bacterial and Viral Communities in Paddy Soil with Irrigation and Urea Application

1,2,3, 1,4, 1,4, 1 and 1,4,*
1
Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
National Field Observation and Research Station of Shenyang Agro-Ecosystems, Shenyang 110016, China
4
Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Viruses)
  |  
PDF [3243 KB, uploaded 16 April 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Viruses are ubiquitous in natural systems. By influencing bacterial abundance (BA) and community structure through lysis-lysogenic conversion, viruses are involved in various ecological processes. In agricultural management, nitrogen addition and irrigation should be considered as important factors that can modify soil viral dynamics but have been ignored. In our study, short-term dynamics of autochthonous soil viral and bacterial abundance and diversity after irrigation and urea application were examined in a long-term experimental paddy field. Urea addition delayed the emergence of peak viral abundance for three days, suggesting that viruses are sensitive to N addition. Under short-term eutrophic conditions through urea application, viruses undertake a lysogenic-biased strategy. Moreover, nitrogen-fixing bacteria were most likely specifically lysed in urea-treated soil, which suggests that soil viruses block N accumulation by killing nitrogen-fixing bacteria. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate dynamic changes in autochthonous viruses in paddy fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil virus; soil bacteria; viromes; paddy soil; viral regulation; soil nutrient cycling soil virus; soil bacteria; viromes; paddy soil; viral regulation; soil nutrient cycling
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Sun, H.; Yang, W.; Chen, G.; Xu, H. Dynamics of Bacterial and Viral Communities in Paddy Soil with Irrigation and Urea Application. Viruses 2019, 11, 347.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top