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Viruses 2019, 11(2), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020154

Preexisting Virus-Specific T Lymphocytes-Mediated Enhancement of Adenovirus Infections to Human Blood CD14+ Cells

1
School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei 230027, China
2
School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong 518107, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health (GIBH), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 January 2019 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Antigen-specific T lymphocytes play a critical role in controlling viral infections. However, we report here that preexisting virus-specific T cell responses also contribute to promoting adenovirus (Ad) infection. Previously, we found that CD14+ monocytes from Ad-seropositive individuals exhibited an increased susceptibility to Ad infection, when compared with that of Ad-seronegative individuals. But the underlying mechanisms for this enhancement of viral infection are not completely clarified. In this study, we found that the efficacy of Ad infection into CD14+ monocytes was significantly decreased after CD3+ T lymphocytes depletion from PBMC samples of Ad-seropositive individuals. In contrast, adding virus-specific CD3+ T lymphocytes into PBMC samples of Ad-seronegative individuals resulted in a significant increase of infection efficacy. CD3+ T lymphocytes in PBMC samples from Ad-seropositive individuals were more sensitive to be activated by adenovirus stimulus, characterized by upregulation of multiple cytokines and activation markers and also enhancement of cell proliferation. Further studies demonstrated that GM-CSF and IL-4 can promote Ad infection by up-regulating the expression of scavenger receptor 1 (SR-A) and integrins αVβ5 receptor of CD14+ cells. And taken together, these results suggest a novel role of virus-specific T cells in mediating enhancement of viral infection, and provide insights to understand the pathogenesis and complicated interactions between viruses and host immune cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: Adenovirus; T lymphocytes; Monocytes; Cytokines; Pathogenesis Adenovirus; T lymphocytes; Monocytes; Cytokines; Pathogenesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Feng, F.; Zhao, J.; Li, P.; Li, R.; Chen, L.; Sun, C. Preexisting Virus-Specific T Lymphocytes-Mediated Enhancement of Adenovirus Infections to Human Blood CD14+ Cells. Viruses 2019, 11, 154.

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