Next Article in Journal
Human Sapovirus among Outpatients with Acute Gastroenteritis in Spain: A One-Year Study
Previous Article in Journal
Staufen1 Protein Participates Positively in the Viral RNA Replication of Enterovirus 71
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020143

Divergent Evolution of E1A CR3 in Human Adenovirus Species D

1
Department of Ophthalmology, Howe Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
3
Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Program, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 22030, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Molecular Virology Laboratory, Korea Zoonosis Research Institute, Jeonbuk 11, National University, Iksan, Korea.
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4661 KB, uploaded 9 February 2019]   |  

Abstract

Adenovirus E1A is the first viral protein expressed during infection. E1A controls critical aspects of downstream viral gene expression and cell cycle deregulation, and its function is thought to be highly conserved among adenoviruses. Various bioinformatics analyses of E1A from 38 human adenoviruses of species D (HAdV-D), including likelihood clade model partitioning, provided highly significant evidence of divergence of HAdV-Ds into two distinct groups for the conserved region 3 (CR3), present only in the E1A 13S isoform. This variance within E1A 13S of HAdV-Ds was not found in any other human adenovirus (HAdV) species. By protein sequence and structural analysis, the zinc finger motif of E1A CR3, previously shown as critical for transcriptional activation, showed the greatest differences. Subsequent codon usage bias analysis revealed substantial divergence in E1A 13S between the two groups of HAdV-Ds, suggesting that these two sub-groups of HAdV-D evolved under different cellular conditions. Hence, HAdV-D E1A embodies a previously unappreciated evolutionary divergence among HAdVs. View Full-Text
Keywords: adenovirus; E1A; viral evolution adenovirus; E1A; viral evolution
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Singh, G.; Ismail, A.M.; Lee, J.Y.; Ramke, M.; Lee, J.S.; Dyer, D.W.; Seto, D.; Rajaiya, J.; Chodosh, J. Divergent Evolution of E1A CR3 in Human Adenovirus Species D. Viruses 2019, 11, 143.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top