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Open AccessArticle

Fowl Adenovirus (FAdV) Recombination with Intertypic Crossovers in Genomes of FAdV-D and FAdV-E, Displaying Hybrid Serological Phenotypes

1
Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Poultry Vaccines, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1210 Vienna, Austria
2
Division of Bioinformatics, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0020, Japan
3
Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Platform, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1210 Vienna, Austria
4
University Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1210 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121094
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 24 November 2019 / Published: 26 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
After analyzing 27 new genomes from fowl adenovirus (FAdV) field isolates and so-far unsequenced prototypes, we report the first evidence for recombination in FAdVs. Recombination was confined to species FAdV-D and FAdV-E, accommodating the largest number of, and the intraspecies-wise most differentiated, types. The majority of detected events occurred in FAdV-E, involving segments with parental origin of all constitutive types. Together with the diversity of breakpoints, this suggests widespread recombination in this species. With possible constraints through species-specific genes and diversification patterns, the recombinogenic potential of FAdVs attains particular interest for inclusion body hepatitis (IBH), an important disease in chickens, caused by types from the recombination-prone species. Autonomously evolving, recombinant segments were associated with major sites under positive selection, among them the capsid protein hexon and fiber genes, the right-terminal ORFs 19, 25, and the ORF20/20A family. The observed mosaicism in genes indicated as targets of adaptive pressures points toward an immune evasion strategy. Intertypic hexon/fiber-recombinants demonstrated hybrid neutralization profiles, retrospectively explaining reported controversies on reference strains B3-A, T8-A, and X11-A. Furthermore, cross-neutralization supported sequence-based evidence for interdomain recombination in fiber and contributed to a tentatively new type. Overall, our findings challenge the purported uniformity of types responsible for IBH, urging more complete identification strategies for FAdVs. Finally, important consequences arise for in vivo studies investigating cross-protection against IBH. View Full-Text
Keywords: fowl adenovirus; whole genome sequencing; recombination; hexon; fiber; cross-neutralization fowl adenovirus; whole genome sequencing; recombination; hexon; fiber; cross-neutralization
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Schachner, A.; Gonzalez, G.; Endler, L.; Ito, K.; Hess, M. Fowl Adenovirus (FAdV) Recombination with Intertypic Crossovers in Genomes of FAdV-D and FAdV-E, Displaying Hybrid Serological Phenotypes. Viruses 2019, 11, 1094.

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