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Open AccessArticle

Clinical and Serological Evaluation of LINDA Virus Infections in Post-Weaning Piglets

1
Institute of Virology, Department for Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria
2
Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University Clinic for Swine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria
3
Institute of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria
4
Virology Laboratory, Elizabeth Macarthur Agriculture Institute, Woodbridge Rd, Menangle, New South Wales 2568, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Current affiliation: Institute of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus-Liebig-Universität, Schubertstrasse 81, 35392 Giessen, Germany
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11110975
Received: 17 September 2019 / Revised: 14 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 23 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Related Pestiviruses)
The novel pestivirus species known as lateral-shaking inducing neuro-degenerative agent (LINDA) virus emerged in 2015 in a piglet-producing farm in Austria. Affected piglets showed strong congenital tremor as a result of severe lesions in the central nervous system. Here, we report the results of a controlled animal infection experiment. Post-weaning piglets were infected with LINDA to determine the susceptibility of pigs, the clinical consequences of infection and the humoral immune response against LINDA. No clinically overt disease signs were observed in the piglets. Viremia was hardly detectable, but LINDA was present in the spleen and several lymphatic organs until the end of the experiment on day 28 post-infection. Oronasal virus shedding together with the infection of one sentinel animal provided additional evidence for the successful replication and spread of LINDA in the piglets. Starting on day 14 post-infection, all infected animals showed a strong humoral immune response with high titers of neutralizing antibodies against LINDA. No cross-neutralizing activity of these sera with other pestiviral species was observed. According to these data, following postnatal infection, LINDA is a rather benign virus that can be controlled by the pig’s immune system. However, further studies are needed to investigate the effects of LINDA on the fetus after intrauterine infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Linda virus; serological profile; virus neutralization assay; virus pathogenicity; humoral immune response Linda virus; serological profile; virus neutralization assay; virus pathogenicity; humoral immune response
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Kiesler, A.; Seitz, K.; Schwarz, L.; Buczolich, K.; Petznek, H.; Sassu, E.; Dürlinger, S.; Högler, S.; Klang, A.; Riedel, C.; Chen, H.-W.; Mötz, M.; Kirkland, P.; Weissenböck, H.; Ladinig, A.; Rümenapf, T.; Lamp, B. Clinical and Serological Evaluation of LINDA Virus Infections in Post-Weaning Piglets. Viruses 2019, 11, 975.

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