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Vector Competence of Italian Populations of Culicoides for Some Bluetongue Virus Strains Responsible for Recent Northern African and European Outbreaks
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Schmallenberg Disease—A Newly Emerged Culicoides-Borne Viral Disease of Ruminants

Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Arthropod-Borne Animal Disease Research Unit, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 1065;
Received: 21 October 2019 / Revised: 5 November 2019 / Accepted: 9 November 2019 / Published: 15 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Vector-Host Interactions of Culicoides-Borne Diseases)
First appearing in 2011 in Northern Europe, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an Orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, is associated with clinical disease mainly in ruminants such as cattle, sheep and goats. The clinical signs are characterized by abortion and congenital deformities in newborns. The virus is transmitted by Culicoides midges of the Obsoletus complex. SBV infection induces a solid protective immunity that persists for at least 4 or 6 years in sheep and cattle, respectively. SBV infection can be diagnosed directly by real-time RT-qPCR and virus isolation or indirectly by serological assays. Three vaccines are commercially available in Europe. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on this emerging disease regarding pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, control and prevention. This review also highlights that although much has been learned since SBV’s first emergence, there are still areas that require further study to devise better mitigation strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Schmallenberg virus; Culicoides; ruminants Schmallenberg virus; Culicoides; ruminants
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MDPI and ACS Style

Endalew, A.D.; Faburay, B.; Wilson, W.C.; Richt, J.A. Schmallenberg Disease—A Newly Emerged Culicoides-Borne Viral Disease of Ruminants. Viruses 2019, 11, 1065.

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