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Seasonal Dynamics of Algae-Infecting Viruses and Their Inferred Interactions with Protists

Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
Department of Marine Biology and Oceanography, Institute of Marine Sciences (CSIC), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Department of Biodiversity, University of Duisburg-Essen, Biology, 45141 Essen, Germany.
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 1043;
Received: 4 October 2019 / Revised: 6 November 2019 / Accepted: 8 November 2019 / Published: 9 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
Viruses are a highly abundant, dynamic, and diverse component of planktonic communities that have key roles in marine ecosystems. We aimed to reveal the diversity and dynamics of marine large dsDNA viruses infecting algae in the Northern Skagerrak, South Norway through the year by metabarcoding, targeting the major capsid protein (MCP) and its correlation to protist diversity and dynamics. Metabarcoding results demonstrated a high diversity of algal viruses compared to previous metabarcoding surveys in Norwegian coastal waters. We obtained 313 putative algal virus operational taxonomic units (vOTUs), all classified by phylogenetic analyses to either the Phycodnaviridae or Mimiviridae families, most of them in clades without any cultured or environmental reference sequences. The viral community showed a clear temporal variation, with some vOTUs persisting for several months. The results indicate co-occurrences between abundant viruses and potential hosts during long periods. This study gives new insights into the virus-algal host dynamics and provides a baseline for future studies of algal virus diversity and temporal dynamics. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phycodnaviridae; Mimiviridae; metagenomics; Oslofjorden; viral-host co-occurrences Phycodnaviridae; Mimiviridae; metagenomics; Oslofjorden; viral-host co-occurrences
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Gran-Stadniczeñko, S.; Krabberød, A.K.; Sandaa, R.-A.; Yau, S.; Egge, E.; Edvardsen, B. Seasonal Dynamics of Algae-Infecting Viruses and Their Inferred Interactions with Protists. Viruses 2019, 11, 1043.

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    Description: Figure S1: Rarefaction curves for the MCP reads at the different samples obtained at Outer Oslofjorden, Figure S2: Phylogenetic tree based on available Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae MCP reference sequences (black), vOTUs found in a previous study in Raunefjorden (blue, [35]) and all algal vOTUs obtained from Outer Oslofjorden (red), Available at: Figure S3: Virus OTU Richness and Diversity over time at the OF2 station, Figure S4: Proportional abundances of Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae over time at Outer Oslofjorden, Table S1: MCP vOTUs recorded at station OF2 during the sampling period March 2010 to June 2011 with number of reads in each sample and taxonomic placement. OTUs marked in red were removed after subsampling, Available at: Table S2: Isolated members of the Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae families used in Figure 1 study with GenBank accession numbers for the MCP, File S1: Fasta file with MCP AA alignment used for the complete phylogenetic tree presented in Figure S2, Available at: File S2: Fasta file with MCP AA alignment used for the phylogenetic tree with the most abundant vOTUs presented in Figure 1. Available at:
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