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Eco-Epidemiological Profile and Molecular Characterization of Simian Foamy Virus in a Recently-Captured Invasive Population of Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-617, Brazil
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Programa de Oncovirologia, Instituto Nacional de Câncer, Rio de Janeiro 20231-050, Brazil
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Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Estadual do Ambiente, Guapimirim 25948-395, Brazil
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Instituto Pri-Matas para a Conservação da Biodiversidade, Belo Horizonte 31160-250, Brazil
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Laboratório de Virologia Comparada e Ambiental—LVCA, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz—IOC, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro 21040-360, Brazil
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Instituto Nacional da Mata Atlântica—INMA, 29650,000, Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo 29932-540, Brazil
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Laboratório de Patologia Comparada de Animais Selvagens—LAPCOM, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-270, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100931
Received: 6 August 2019 / Revised: 26 September 2019 / Accepted: 29 September 2019 / Published: 10 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spumaretroviruses)
Simian foamy viruses (SFV) infect a wide range of Old World and Neotropical primates (NP). Unlike Old World primates, little is known about the diversity and prevalence of SFV in NP, mainly from a free-living population. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that SFV coevolved with their hosts. However, viral strains infecting Leontopithecus chrysomelas did not behave as expected for this hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the eco-epidemiological profile and molecular characterization of SFV in a recently captured invasive population of L. chrysomelas located in Niteroi/RJ using buccal swab as an alternative collection method. A prevalence of 34.8% (32/92) and a mean viral load of 4.7 log copies of SFV/106 cells were observed. With respect to time since capture, SFV prevalence was significantly higher in the group of animals sampled over 6 months after capture (55.2%) than in those more recently captured (25.4%) (p = 0.005). Infected solitary animals can contribute to SFV transmission between different groups in the population. SFV strains formed two distinct clades within the SFV infecting the Cebidae family. This is the first study to use buccal swabs as a tool to study SFV diversity and prevalence in a recently free-living NP population upon recent capture. View Full-Text
Keywords: spumavirus; viral prevalence; epidemiology; Neotropical primates; free-living primates; Brazil spumavirus; viral prevalence; epidemiology; Neotropical primates; free-living primates; Brazil
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S. Miranda, T.; Muniz, C.P.; B. Moreira, S.; G. Bueno, M.; Kierulff, M.C.M.; V. Molina, C.; Catão-Dias, J.L.; Pissinatti, A.; A. Soares, M.; Santos, A.F. Eco-Epidemiological Profile and Molecular Characterization of Simian Foamy Virus in a Recently-Captured Invasive Population of Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Viruses 2019, 11, 931.

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