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Viruses 2018, 10(9), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090477

Infectious Bronchitis Virus Nonstructural Protein 4 Alone Induces Membrane Pairing

1
The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK
2
School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK
3
School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
Current Address: College of STEM, Texas A&M University-Texarkana, Texarkana, TX 75503, USA.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Positive-strand RNA viruses, such as coronaviruses, induce cellular membrane rearrangements during replication to form replication organelles allowing for efficient viral RNA synthesis. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a pathogenic avian Gammacoronavirus of significant importance to the global poultry industry, has been shown to induce the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs), zippered endoplasmic reticulum (zER) and tethered vesicles, known as spherules. These membrane rearrangements are virally induced; however, it remains unclear which viral proteins are responsible. In this study, membrane rearrangements induced when expressing viral non-structural proteins (nsps) from two different strains of IBV were compared. Three non-structural transmembrane proteins, nsp3, nsp4, and nsp6, were expressed in cells singularly or in combination and the effects on cellular membranes investigated using electron microscopy and electron tomography. In contrast to previously studied coronaviruses, IBV nsp4 alone is necessary and sufficient to induce membrane pairing; however, expression of the transmembrane proteins together was not sufficient to fully recapitulate DMVs. This indicates that although nsp4 is able to singularly induce membrane pairing, further viral or host factors are required in order to fully assemble IBV replicative structures. This study highlights further differences in the mechanism of membrane rearrangements between members of the coronavirus family. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus; infectious bronchitis virus; non-structural protein; nsp4; nsp3; membrane rearrangements; electron tomography; paired membranes; zippered ER coronavirus; infectious bronchitis virus; non-structural protein; nsp4; nsp3; membrane rearrangements; electron tomography; paired membranes; zippered ER
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Doyle, N.; Neuman, B.W.; Simpson, J.; Hawes, P.C.; Mantell, J.; Verkade, P.; Alrashedi, H.; Maier, H.J. Infectious Bronchitis Virus Nonstructural Protein 4 Alone Induces Membrane Pairing. Viruses 2018, 10, 477.

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