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Viruses 2018, 10(7), 377;

Genomic Analysis of 48 Paenibacillus larvae Bacteriophages

School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA
Center for Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology, Faculty of the Life Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago 8370186, Chile
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 8 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteriophage Genomes and Genomics: News from the Wild)
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The antibiotic-resistant bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), currently the most destructive bacterial disease in honeybees. Phages that infect P. larvae were isolated as early as the 1950s, but it is only in recent years that P. larvae phage genomes have been sequenced and annotated. In this study we analyze the genomes of all 48 currently sequenced P. larvae phage genomes and classify them into four clusters and a singleton. The majority of P. larvae phage genomes are in the 38–45 kbp range and use the cohesive ends (cos) DNA-packaging strategy, while a minority have genomes in the 50–55 kbp range that use the direct terminal repeat (DTR) DNA-packaging strategy. The DTR phages form a distinct cluster, while the cos phages form three clusters and a singleton. Putative functions were identified for about half of all phage proteins. Structural and assembly proteins are located at the front of the genome and tend to be conserved within clusters, whereas regulatory and replication proteins are located in the middle and rear of the genome and are not conserved, even within clusters. All P. larvae phage genomes contain a conserved N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase that serves as an endolysin. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteriophages; Paenibacillus larvae; American foulbrood; comparative genomics; large terminase; N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase; major capsid protein bacteriophages; Paenibacillus larvae; American foulbrood; comparative genomics; large terminase; N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase; major capsid protein

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Stamereilers, C.; Fajardo, C.P.; Walker, J.K.; Mendez, K.N.; Castro-Nallar, E.; Grose, J.H.; Hope, S.; Tsourkas, P.K. Genomic Analysis of 48 Paenibacillus larvae Bacteriophages. Viruses 2018, 10, 377.

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