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Viruses 2018, 10(5), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10050274

The Occurrence of a Commercial Npro and Erns Double Mutant BVDV-1 Live-Vaccine Strain in Newborn Calves

1
Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Suedufer 10, 17493 Greifswald—Insel Riems, Germany
2
Saxon State Laboratory of Health and Veterinary Affairs, Zschopauer Straße 87, 09111 Chemnitz, Germany
3
Saxon State Laboratory of Health and Veterinary Affairs, Bahnhofstraße 58-60, 04158 Leipzig, Germany
4
Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Suedufer 10, 17493 Greifswald—Insel Riems, Germany
5
Department of Experimental Animal Facilities and Biorisk Management, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Suedufer 10, 17493 Greifswald—Insel Riems, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Full-Text   |   PDF [679 KB, uploaded 19 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

The major source for the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are in-utero infected, immunotolerant, persistently infected (PI) animals since they shed enormous amounts of viruses throughout their lives. During the sequence-based virus typing of diagnostic ear notch samples performed in the context of the obligatory German BVDV eradication program, the commercial Npro and Erns double mutant BVDV-1 live-vaccine strain KE-9 was detected in seven newborn calves; their mothers were immunized in the first trimester of gestation. Six calves either succumbed or were culled immediately, but the one remaining animal was closely monitored for six months. The viral RNA was detected in the skin sample taken in its first and fifth week of life, but the virus could not be isolated. Further skin biopsies that were taken at monthly intervals as well as every serum and urine sample, nasal, oral, and rectal swabs taken weekly tested BVDV negative. However, neutralizing titers against BVDV-1 remained at a consistently high level. To further control for virus shedding, a BVDV antibody and antigen negative calf was co-housed which remained negative throughout the study. The missing viremia, a lack of excretion of infectious virus and negative follow-up skin samples combined with consistently high antibody titers speak against the induction of the classical persistent infection by vaccination with recombinant KE-9 during gestation. We, therefore, suggest that the epidemiological impact of the RNA/antigen positivity for an extended period in the skin is very low. The detection of live-vaccine viruses in skin biopsies mainly represents a diagnostic issue in countries that implemented ear notch-based control programs; and KE9-specific RT-PCRs or sequence analysis can be used to identify these animals and avoid culling measures. View Full-Text
Keywords: bovine viral diarrhea virus; pregnancy; live vaccine; persistence; ear notch sampling bovine viral diarrhea virus; pregnancy; live vaccine; persistence; ear notch sampling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Wernike, K.; Michelitsch, A.; Aebischer, A.; Schaarschmidt, U.; Konrath, A.; Nieper, H.; Sehl, J.; Teifke, J.P.; Beer, M. The Occurrence of a Commercial Npro and Erns Double Mutant BVDV-1 Live-Vaccine Strain in Newborn Calves. Viruses 2018, 10, 274.

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