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Viruses 2018, 10(3), 110;

Are microRNAs Important Players in HIV-1 Infection? An Update

Center for AIDS Health Disparities Research, Tennessee Center for AIDS Research; Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
Department of Graduate Studies and Research, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 January 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 25 February 2018 / Published: 3 March 2018
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HIV-1 has already claimed over 35 million human lives globally. No curative treatments are currently available, and the only treatment option for over 36 million people currently living with HIV/AIDS are antiretroviral drugs that disrupt the function of virus-encoded proteins. However, such virus-targeted therapeutic strategies are constrained by the ability of the virus to develop drug-resistance. Despite major advances in HIV/AIDS research over the years, substantial knowledge gaps exist in many aspects of HIV-1 replication, especially its interaction with the host. Hence, understanding the mechanistic details of virus–host interactions may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention and/or management of HIV/AIDS. Notably, unprecedented progress in deciphering host gene silencing processes mediated by several classes of cellular small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA) presents a promising and timely opportunity for developing non-traditional antiviral therapeutic strategies. Cellular microRNAs (miRNA) belong to one such important class of sncRNAs that regulate protein synthesis. Evidence is mounting that cellular miRNAs play important roles in viral replication, either usurped by the virus to promote its replication or employed by the host to control viral infection by directly targeting the viral genome or by targeting cellular proteins required for productive virus replication. In this review, we summarize the findings to date on the role of miRNAs in HIV-1 biology. View Full-Text
Keywords: miRNA; HIV; Post-transcriptional regulation miRNA; HIV; Post-transcriptional regulation

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Balasubramaniam, M.; Pandhare, J.; Dash, C. Are microRNAs Important Players in HIV-1 Infection? An Update. Viruses 2018, 10, 110.

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