Both Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus
(SRBSDV) and Rice ragged stunt virus
(RRSV) belong to the family Reoviridae
, and synergistic infection of these two viruses commonly occurs in the field. This study revealed that both SRBSDV and RRSV affect the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway and form different virus-derived interfering RNA (vsiRNA) profiles in rice. Co-infection of rice by SRBSDV and RRSV up-regulated the expression of rice DICER-like (DCL) proteins but down-regulated the expression of rice RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs), and the accumulation of vsiRNAs of either RBSDV or RRSV was decreased compared with that in singly infected plants. The majority of SRBSDV vsiRNAs were 21 nt or 22 nt in length, whether plants were singly infected with SRBSDV or co-infected with RRSV. On the other hand, the majority of RRSV vsiRNAs were 20 nt, 21 nt, or 22 nt in length, among which those 20 nt in length accounted for the largest proportion; co-infection with SRBSDV further increased the proportion of 20 nt vsiRNAs and decreased the proportion of 21 nt vsiRNAs. Co-infection had no effects on the strand favoritism and hot spots of the vsiRNAs, but changed the bias of the 5′ terminal nucleotide significantly. This study provides a reference for further study on the pathogenesis and synergistic mechanism of SRBSDV and RRSV.
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