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Visualization of HIV-1 RNA Transcription from Integrated HIV-1 DNA in Reactivated Latently Infected Cells

1
CS Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201, USA
2
Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
3
Division of Infectious Diseases and International Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
4
Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
5
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
6
Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Laboratory of Biochemical Pharmacology, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100534
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

We have recently developed the first microscopy-based strategy that enables simultaneous multiplex detection of viral RNA (vRNA), viral DNA (vDNA), and viral protein. Here, we used this approach to study the kinetics of latency reactivation in cells infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We showed the transcription of nascent vRNA from individual latently integrated and reactivated vDNA sites appearing earlier than viral protein. We further demonstrated that this method can be used to quantitatively assess the efficacy of a variety of latency reactivating agents. Finally, this microscopy-based strategy was augmented with a flow-cytometry-based approach, enabling the detection of transcriptional reactivation of large numbers of latently infected cells. Hence, these approaches are shown to be suitable for qualitative and quantitative studies of HIV-1 latency and reactivation. View Full-Text
Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus; in situ hybridization; latency; reactivation human immunodeficiency virus; in situ hybridization; latency; reactivation
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Ukah, O.B.; Puray-Chavez, M.; Tedbury, P.R.; Herschhorn, A.; Sodroski, J.G.; Sarafianos, S.G. Visualization of HIV-1 RNA Transcription from Integrated HIV-1 DNA in Reactivated Latently Infected Cells. Viruses 2018, 10, 534.

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