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Viruses 2018, 10(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10010026

High-Mannose But Not Complex-Type Glycosylation of Tetherin Is Required for Restriction of HIV-1 Release

Virus-Cell Interaction Section, HIV Dynamics and Replication Program, National Cancer Institute, Bldg. 535, Room 108B, 1050 Boyles St., Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA
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Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 31 December 2017 / Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract

Tetherin is an interferon-inducible antiviral protein that inhibits the release of a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses by retaining virions at the surface of infected cells. While the role of specific tetherin domains in antiviral activity is clearly established, the role of glycosylation in tetherin function is not clear. In this study, we carried out a detailed investigation of this question by using tetherin variants in which one or both sites of N-linked glycosylation were mutated (N65A, N92A, and N65,92A), and chemical inhibitors that prevent glycosylation at specific stages of oligosaccharide were added or modified. The single N-linked glycosylation mutants, N65A and N92A, efficiently inhibited the release of Vpu-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In contrast, the non-glycosylated double mutant, N65,92A, lost its ability to block HIV-1 release. The inability of the N65,92A mutant to inhibit HIV-1 release is associated with a lack of cell-surface expression. A role for glycosylation in cell-surface tetherin expression is supported by tunicamycin treatment, which inhibits the first step of N-linked glycosylation and impairs both cell-surface expression and antiviral activity. Inhibition of complex-type glycosylation with kifunensine, an inhibitor of the oligosaccharide processing enzyme mannosidase 1, had no effect on either the cell-surface expression or antiviral activity of tetherin. These results demonstrate that high-mannose modification of a single asparagine residue is necessary and sufficient, while complex-type glycosylation is dispensable, for cell-surface tetherin expression and antiviral activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus; tetherin; mutant; N-linked glycosylation; glycosylation inhibitors; cell surface; virus release; tunicamycin; kifunensine human immunodeficiency virus; tetherin; mutant; N-linked glycosylation; glycosylation inhibitors; cell surface; virus release; tunicamycin; kifunensine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Waheed, A.A.; Gitzen, A.; Swiderski, M.; Freed, E.O. High-Mannose But Not Complex-Type Glycosylation of Tetherin Is Required for Restriction of HIV-1 Release. Viruses 2018, 10, 26.

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